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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice



Last update: 27 November 2023
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Accreditation - the process whereby the concerned educational unit/institution/organization acquires, based on the external evaluation conducted in accordance with this law, the right to organize entrance examinations, carry out the learning process, organize end-of study exams and issue diplomas and certificates acknowledged by the Ministry of Education.

Accredited study program

Accredited study program - the study program that fulfills the minimal requirements provided by accreditation standards and performance indicators.

Acknowledgement of learning outcomes and related credits

Acknowledgement of learning outcomes and related credits – the process whereby the acquired, evaluated and validated learning outcomes and credits are granted an official status for the purpose of obtaining the vocational qualification certificate. 

Ante-preschool education and care (day-care)

is a part of the national school education system and, at the same time, the first level of early childhood education and care, addressed to children from birth to the age of 3. Ante-preschool education and care programmes are delivered in crèches or kindergartens.

Authorized study program

Authorized study program - the evaluated study program which was approved and which fulfills the provisional authorization conditions.


Certification of learning outcomes

Certification of learning outcomes – the process whereby the outcomes of the learning acquired by the studying individual are formally confirmed following an evaluation process.


Competence – the proven capacity to select, combine and adequately use the knowledge, skills and other assets consisting in values and attitudes in order to successfully solve a certain category of job or learning situations, as well as for professional or personal development under efficacy and efficiency conditions.

Core Curriculum (trunchiul comun - TC)

The Core Curriculum represents the number of hours which are obligatory for the entire mass of students included in a particular educational programme for each school subject. This number of hours ensures equal opportunities in education. 


a public or private institution specialised in services of a social, medical and educational nature for raising, caring for and educating children of ante-preschool age (from birth to the age of 3). The crèches which set up groups of ante-preschool education and care are a part of both the national system of social services regulated by the Social Assistance Law 292/2011, as they provide care and supervision services, and of the school education system regulated by the National Education Law 1/2011, with its subsequent amendments and additions, as they provide ante-preschool education services. For the time being, crèches are the responsibility of local public authorities as far as administrative matters are concerned, while the Ministry of Education and Research has responsibilities in connection with the curriculum and the training and employing teaching staff.


Criterion – a set of standards regarding a key organizational and operational aspect of an education service supplier/providing unit/institution during the process of provisional functioning authorization/accreditation/quality evaluation and assurance.

Curricular area

A curricular area is a group of school subjects which share some specific objectives and the same methodology; it is at the same time a group of functional subjects in view of the competences which are necessary to the students who complete a particular level of education. Curricular areas have been defined in accordance with the goals of education by taking into account the importance of the various cultural areas which structure human personality and the connections between these areas.


Daytime care center

Daytime care center is a State institution or an institution owned by a nongovernmental organization where children with deficiencies and transportable are hosted and cared for throughout the day.

Direct beneficiaries of education and vocational training

Direct beneficiaries of education and vocational training– ante pre-school children, pre-school children, pupils and students, as well as adults enrolled in a form of education and vocational training.

Dual education

Dual education is a form of organization of the vocational education, which is performed, based on an partnership contract concluded between a training provider/ educational unit, a company/ public institution and the local authority where the training provider is situated and combines the practical training which is organized by a company/ public institution, with the training organized within a training provider/ an educational unit. The responsibility regarding the organization and functioning is shared by the company, the educational unit and the local authority.


Early childhood education and care (ECEC)

is the first level of the Romanian national school education system, addressed to children from birth to the age of 6. Early childhood education and care is organised in crèches, kindergartens and day-care centres. In Romania, although there is still no unitary system from all points of view, we use the definition from the European framework policy document (A Quality Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care - Report of the Working Group on Early Childhood Education and Care under the auspices of the European Commission - 2014), namely: “any regulated arrangement that provides education and care for children from birth to compulsory primary school age - regardless of the setting, funding, opening hours or programme content - and includes centre and family day-care; […] pre-school and pre-primary provision”.


ECTS – European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System.


ECVET – European Credit for Vocational Education and Training.


(1) – a public service organized under a public law legal regime for the purpose of ensuring the education and vocational training of the young generation.

(2) – the overall processes of implementing programs and activities of learning and creating academic or vocational competences. Education includes learning activities both in a formal, and in a non-formal or informal context.

Education and vocational training

Education and vocational training – a coherent and permanent set of learning activities and experiences undergone by the learning subject during the entire period of his/her educational-training route.

Education center

Education center - an educational unit organized by the Ministry of Education or by nongovernmental organizations, in partnership with the Ministry of Education meant for the recovery, compensation, rehabilitation and school and social integration of various categories of children/pupils/young people with deficiencies.

Education quality

Education quality– the total set of characteristics of a study program or vocational qualification program or of its provider, meeting the quality standards and the beneficiaries’ expectations.

Education quality assurance

Education quality assurance – the capacity of an educational service supplier organization to provide educational programs according to announced standards, ensured by a set of actions meant to develop the institutional capacity, and draft, plan and implement study programs, which builds the beneficiaries’ trust in the fact that the educational service supplier organization meets quality standards.

Education quality control in pre-university educational units

Education quality control in pre-university educational units – operational activities and techniques, implemented on a systematic basis by an inspection authority appointed to verify the compliance with preset standards.

Education quality improvement

Education quality improvement – the evaluation, analysis and permanent corrective activity carried out by the education service supplier/providing unit/institution, based on the selection and adoption of the most appropriate procedures, and also on the selection and implementation of reference standards.

Education service providing unit/ institution/ education service supplier

Education service providing unit / institution / education service supplier – the accredited education units and institutions.


Empowerment – the certification of an individual’s capacity to coordinate PhD dissertations and hold the didactic and research position of professor.


EQF – The European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning is a benchmark used to compare the qualification levels of various qualification systems, which promotes both lifelong learning and equal opportunities in a knowledge-based society, as well as the further integration of citizens on the European labor market, while respecting the great diversity of national educational systems.

Evaluation of learning outcomes

Evaluation of learning outcomes – the process whereby it is established that an individual acquired certain knowledge, skills and competences.


Full-time, part-time, distance learning

Full-time, part-time, distance learning organization forms of didactic processes involving:

  • (a) compulsory attendance for full-time learning

  • (b) replacement of teaching hours with individual study activities and periodical, usually weekly meetings with pupils/students/course attendants in order to carry out the compulsory applicative activities provided in the learning framework plans/learning plans, for part-time education

  • (c) replacement of teaching hours with individual study activities and periodical meetings, holding of seminars in a tutoring and compulsory system for all the didactic activities that develop practical competences and skills in a face to face system for distance learning.

Fundamental landmarks of early learning and development of children from birth to the age of 7 (RFIDC)

is a set of statements reflecting the expectations in terms of what children from birth to the age of 7 should know and be able to do. These expectations are defined so as to support the normal and full growth and development of children from birth until they go to school. According to this document, the goals of early childhood education and care consider a holistic approach, addressing the five areas of a child’s development:

  • physical development, health and personal hygiene

  • socio-emotional development

  • cognitive development and knowledge of the world

  • development of language, communication and the premises for reading and writing, and

  • learning skills and attitudes.

The document has been drawn up in the framework of an international UNICEF initiative to develop early childhood learning and development standards.

Therefore, in the interval 2007 -2009, with support provided by Romanian professionals in the area of early childhood education and care, the document was drafted and adapted to the capacities, needs and interests of the children population in Romania, through a comprehensive testing and validation process. After its validation, the document was enacted by the Minister Order no. 3851/2010 and used in the construction of the curriculum, parental education programmes or initial and in-service training programmes for ECEC professionals, professional standards or programme standards, etc. 


Higher education

Higher education include study programmes at ‘graduate’ (BA, BS and similar), ‘post-graduate’ (MA, MS and similar) and ‘doctorate’ (PhD and similar).


Indirect beneficiaries of education and vocational training

Indirect beneficiaries of education and vocational training–families of direct beneficiaries, employers, the local community and generally, the entire society.

Inspection of pre-university education institutions

represents the official evaluation by the institutions legally enabled by the law (Ministry of Education or school inspectorates, as the case may be) of achieving the goals and objectives of the different categories of educational institutions, as defined by current legislation.

Institutional evaluation of quality

Institutional evaluation of quality – the multi-criteria examination of education quality, of the extent to which an education service supplier/providing unit/institution and its programs fulfill the standards and the reference standards. When quality evaluation is conducted by the organization, it shall be carried out as an internal evaluation. When quality evaluation is conducted by a specialized national or worldwide agency, it shall be carried out as an external evaluation.



an education establishment, public or private, which is part of the national school education system and, consequently, is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Research. Kindergartens provide education and care services to children aged between 3 and 6. According to the regulations in force, kindergartens may enrol children aged between 2 and 3, in homogenous ante-preschool groups or in heterogeneous groups together with 3-4 year-olds. Kindergartens having at least 150 ante-preschoolers and preschoolers may function as education establishments with a legal person status. If they do not meet this requirement, they will function as subordinated to other school education establishments with a legal person status (kindergartens, schools or high-schools).


Knowledge – the outcome of acquiring, by learning, a set of facts, principles, theories and practices related to a certain work or study field.

Knowledge society

Knowledge society–a society where knowledge is the main resource, being created, shared and used in order to generate prosperity and wellbeing to its members.


Learning outcomes

Learning outcomes – means what a person understands, knows and is capable to do at the end of a learning process. The learning outcomes consist in the knowledge, skills and competences acquired during various formal, non-formal and informal learning experiences.

Learning outcome unit

Learning outcome unit– the part of a qualification including a coherent set of knowledge, skills and general competences which can be evaluated and validated.

Locally-Developed Curriculum (Curriculum in dezvoltare locală - CDL)

The Locally Developed Curriculum (CDL) is the curricular provision specific to each vocational and technical education establishment and is delivered in partnership with the economic operators. This curricular provision ensures the necessary framework for adapting students’ training to the demands of the local labour market. The design and evaluation of the Locally Developed Curriculum involves the engagement of social partners (economic operators, local employer and/or employee associations/ organisations) in the process concerned with the identification of specific competences for the local labour market and of the learning situations offered to students.The Locally Developed Curriculum is approved by the board of the County School Inspectorate/Bucharest School Inspectorate.



Mandate – the period when a person, appointed in a management position by vote or further to a contest, in an educational unit/institution within the national education system, implements the managerial program based on which it was vested. The mandate duration is 4 years.


National education system

National education system – consists in all the accredited State, particular and religious educational units and institutions, of various types, levels and organization forms of the education and vocational training activity.

National Framework of Higher Education Qualifications hereinafter referred to as CNCIS

National Framework of Higher Education Qualifications hereinafter referred to as CNCIS – the tool used to establish the structure of qualifications in higher education. CNCIS is meant to ensure coherence of the qualifications and the degrees obtained within the higher education system. CNCIS ensures national acknowledgement, as well as international compatibility and comparability of the qualifications obtained through higher education. CNCIS is part of the National Qualifications’ Framework defined under item 7.

National Qualifications’ Framework

National Qualifications’ Framework - a tool used to establish qualifications, in line with a set of criteria corresponding to certain specific learning levels. The National Qualifications’ Framework is aimed at integrating and coordinating national qualification subsystems and enhancing transparency, access, progress and quality of qualifications according to the labour market and the civil society.

National register of qualifications

National register of qualifications is a national database including the description of all the qualifications in Romania.


Occupational standard

represents the description of the professional activities carried out and reflects the ability, autonomy and responsibility to successfully perform the tasks required for an occupation, as well as the application of knowledge, skills and understanding in the occupation.

Organization interested in providing educational services

Organization interested in providing educational services – a legal entity which includes learning activities in its charter and undergoes the authorization process in order to become an education service supplier.


Performance indicator

Performance indicator – a tool measuring the degree to which an activity carried out by the education service supplier/ providing unit/ institution was fulfilled, as compared to standards and reference standards respectively. The minimal level of performance indicators corresponds to the requirements of a standard. The maximum level of performance indicators corresponds to the requirements of a reference standard, is optional and differentiates quality on a hierarchical, progressive basis.

Periodic external evaluation

is the form of external evaluation of educational institutions, conducted at least once every 5 years, which indicates the level of quality of education provided as requested by standards and reference standards. 

Preschool education

is a part of the national school education system and, at the same time, the second level of early childhood education and care, addressed to children aged between 3 and 6. Preschool education programmes are delivered in preschool education establishments, i.e. kindergartens.

Pre-university education

includes early education, primary education, secondary education, vocational and technical education and non-university tertiary education).

Private education

Private education – is the equivalent of nonpublic education, as defined in the Constitution of Romania, as republished.

Provisional functioning authorization

Provisional functioning authorization - the process whereby the concerned educational unit/institution/organization, based on the external evaluation performed in accordance with this law, by the quality assurance agencies authorized to operate on the Romanian territory, acquires the capacity of education service supplier, under a decision of the relevant local administration authority and under Government decision. The authorization for provisional functioning gives the right to organize entrance examinations and organize and carry out the learning process.

Public education

Public education – is the equivalent of State education, as defined in the Constitution of Romania, as republished.



Qualification – the formal result of an evaluation and validation process, obtained when a competent body establishes that, further to the learning process, a person obtained results according to certain preset standards.


Reference standard

Reference standard – the description of the requirements defining an optimal level of performance of an activity, by the education service supplier/providing unit/institution, based on the good practice existing at national, European or worldwide level. Reference standards are specific to each study program or each institution, are optional and are above the minimal level.


School-Based Curriculum (curriculum la decizia scolii - CDS)

The School-Based Curriculum (CDS) represents the educational provision proposed by a school in accordance with:

In the Framework Curricula, CDS is indicated through the number of hours allocated to schools for creating their own curricular project. CDS is determined in a decentralised way by each school, every school year for the next school year.

Second Chance Educational Programs

Second Chance Educational Programs - educational programs aimed at supporting children/young people/adults who left the educational system too soon, without having completed the primary and/or secondary education, exceeding by at least 4 years the school age corresponding to such levels, so as to make it possible for them to complement and finalize the compulsory learning programs and to obtain a vocational qualification. 


Standard –the description of the requirements set out in terms of rules or outcomes, defining the minimal compulsory level of performing an educational activity. Any standard is set out in general terms, as a statement, and materializes as a set of performance indicators. Standards are differentiated by criteria and fields.

Study programs

Study programs – materialize the educational offer of an organization which provides educational services.

The qualification Level 3

The qualification Level 3 - entails the possession of knowledge and skills for the proper execution of the tasks within a field of activity, as well as by adapting one’s own behavior in order to solve the problems.

Third states

Third states – any states, except for European Union Member States, the states of the European Economic Area and of the Swiss Confederation.

Transfer of learning outcomes and related credits

Transfer of learning outcomes and related credits – the process whereby learning outcomes and related credits are transferred to and integrated within the vocational training program attended by the studying person.

Transferable study credits

Transferable study credits – are value numbers allocated to course units and other didactic activities. Transferable study credits are used to estimate, on average, the amount of all types of work done by a student to acquire the knowledge and the competences specific to a subject field.

Transversal competences

Transversal competences – value and attitude assets that go beyond a certain study area/program and is described by the following keywords: autonomy and accountability, social interaction, personal and professional development.

Tutoring system

Tutoring system –the organization of didactic activities in distance learning, by one member of the tutoring teaching staff, which provides:


Unit – an educational unit in pre-university education.

Unique Nominal Roll of Romanian Universities (RMUR)

Unique Nominal Roll of Romanian Universities (RMUR) – is a national electronic database where all the students in State, private or religious higher education institutions, accredited or authorized to function on a provisional basis are registered. RMUR is established based on the nominal rolls of higher education institutions.

University scientific research

University scientific research - scientific research itself, artistic creation and activities specific to high performances in sports.


Validation of learning outcomes

Validation of learning outcomes – a process confirming that the learning outcomes acquired by an individual, which are evaluated and certified, meet the specific requirements for a certain unit or qualification.

Vocational competences

Vocational competences – a unitary and dynamic set of knowledge and skills.

The following keywords are used to describe knowledge:

The following keywords are used to describe skills:

Vocational qualification programs

Vocational qualification programs – the educational offer which leads to acquiring a vocational qualification registered in the National Qualifications’ Register. 

Vocational training credits

(1) the overall outcomes of the learning acquired by an individual during a vocational training program, used to indicate the progress made and the complementation of a training program which results in obtaining a qualification. Credits are used to permit the transfer from one qualification to another, from one qualification level to another and from one learning system to another.

(2) is the number expression of the importance of a learning outcome unit related to a qualification.

  • (i) students’ learning needs and interests

  • (ii) the specificity of the school

  • (iii) the needs and the traditions of the local community.

  • a) the performance of learning and evaluation activities, both in the distance and the face to face system

  • b) the organization by subject matters and groups that include no more than 25 pupils/students/course attendants. 

  • knowing

  • understanding

  • use of specific language

  • explanation and interpretation.

  • implementation

  • transfer and problem solving

  • critical and constructive reflection

  • creativity and innovation.