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Second-cycle programmes


7.Higher education

7.3 Second-cycle programmes

Last update: 27 November 2023

The master studies correspond, usually, to a number of credits between 90 (60 by exception) and 120.

A master semester corresponding to a number of 30 study credits. 

Branches of study

Master-degree studies aim at extending competences into certain areas of specialisation.

Master-degree studies take 2-4 semesters to complete, are finalized by a dissertation and recognised through a Diploma de Master (master’s Diploma). 

GD 434/2022 on accredited master's degree programmes and fields of study and the maximum number of students that may be enrolled in the academic year 2022-2023 approved:

  • fields and programmes of study
  • geographical locations
  • the number of transferable study credits for each programme
  • form of education or language of teaching
  • maximum number of students who may be enrolled in the academic year 2022-2023 at the public and private higher institutions.

Admission requirements

Admission is organised in accordance with the admission methodology of each university, with the observance of the legislation in force. 

The general admission framework is regulated by Order No. 3102/2022 for the approval of the Framework Methodology regarding the organization of admission in undergraduate, master's, and doctoral study cycles.

Every public higher education institution is allocated by an Order of Minister a number of places funded from the state budget for which they can organise admission.

Besides these places, public higher education institutions are authorised to admit a number of students who accept to pay tuition fees (Law 441/2001). The Ministry of Education approves each year the exact number of places at every higher education institution for which students pay a tuition fee based on the proposals of the university senates and in compliance with the academic standards for evaluation and accreditation.

The tuition fees are established by the senates.


Curricula are established autonomously by the higher education institutions, according to the national strategies for higher education development and the national academic standards.

The higher education curricula have to include:

  • compulsory subjects
  • optional subjects
  • facultative subjects.

Compulsory and optional subjects belong to any of the following categories:

  • fundamental subjects
  • profile/ specialisation subjects
  • complementary subjects.

For each reference domain and specialisation of study recognized by the law, the higher education institutions establish educational plan.

The educational plan is a complex document comprising:

  • duration of studies
  • subjects by type and year of study
  • types of activities
  • number of allocated periods by subject and activity, examinations
  • number of credits allocated, etc.

The structure and content of the educational plan regarding subjects, activities and number of periods has to comply with the national academic standards. The final curricula for each subject are elaborated by the higher education institutions departments according to these specific standards, analysed by the departments’ councils, and approved by university senates.

A number of higher education institutions provide complete tuition in a foreign language for certain specialisations.

As a rule, for all education levels, education and training is provided in Romanian.

The persons belonging to the national minorities have the right to study and be instructed in their mother tongue at all levels and forms of education as well as in all types of education – providing there is a sufficient demand.

  • In consequence, study lines in Hungarian and German for students belonging to these national minorities are organised in several higher education institutions.
  • At the same time, the Education Law states that learning of Romanian, as the official language, is compulsory for all Romanian citizens, irrespective of their nationality.

Teaching methods

The teaching-learning activities have to comply with the national academic standards for each reference domain and specialisation.

The teaching-learning activities for most academic subjects include:

  • lectures (theoretical courses)
  • seminars
  • laboratory classes
  • practical activities
  • projects.

Lectures, usually delivered to a large number of students, provide the basic knowledge in a specific field of study.

Seminars are devoted to a thorough study of the themes approached in lectures and require an active participation of the students.

Laboratory classes, taught to small groups of students, are devoted to research activities and practical training under the supervision of a tutor.

For certain specialisations practical activities – in the form of field work, scientific research, teaching practice, etc. – are required.

Teachers are free to choose their own teaching methods. During all the teaching-learning activities, according to the specificity of the specialisation and subject, professors use a variety of teaching methods that may include:

  • Expository methods (description, explanation, etc.) and conversational methods (conversation, heuristic conversation, questioning on a special subject, etc.) – mostly during lectures.

  • Exploratory learning methods such as:

    • direct exploration of objects and phenomena (systematic and independent observation, experiments, practical work, etc.)

    • indirect exploration (problem solving, demonstration through pictures, films, etc.) – mostly during seminars, laboratory classes and practical activities.

  • Project preparation and presentation.

Teaching through ICT is used on an extensive scale for modelling, designing, calculating, presentations, information acquisition, communication, etc.

In higher education institutions as well as in numerous universities campuses students have full-time free of charge access to public computers connected to Internet.

Progression of students

The organisation of the higher education process using the transferable credit system has begun during the 1998/1999 academic year.

This organisation makes it possible by using an analytical evaluation system that assesses the time and effort necessary to carry on the activities composing the education process. Moreover, it has advantages both for the mode of organization and its management and for its validation in other universities in Romania and abroad.

Master's degree programs correspond to a minimum number of transferable study credits, between 60 and 120, and are completed through EQF/CEC level 7 and the National Qualifications Framework.

A year of study as a full-time student is the equivalent to an average of 60 credits.

The maximum number of transferable credits in the ECTS (European Credits Transfer System) is set by the council of each faculty. If a student attends a study period in other higher education institutions (domestic and/or abroad), according to the regulations set by each institution, the credits obtained will be recognized.

Within the university autonomy, each higher education institution establishes its own promotion requirements, according to the general provisions of the law and the national standards for higher education.

  • Students are granted the possibility to try to pass the examination for a given subject three times: regular examination, second examination and re-examination.
  • If failing both regular and second examination (the latter performed in a dedicated session), the student may be allowed to enroll in the next year of study and sit the examination again, subject to the rector’s approval.
  • Nevertheless, the deadline for the third examination (the re-examination) is the first regular session of the next academic year. If failing for the third time, the student has to attend once more all the teaching-learning activities related to the respective subject.

Promotion from one year of study to the next one is subject to the overall performance of the students, as assessed through the results of the examinations held in the given year of study.

Students have to pass a certain percentage of the total number of examinations of a given year of study and to acquire a certain number of credits, set by the HEI internal regulations, before being allowed to enroll for the next academic year.

Students that do not accomplish the minimum percentage of passed examinations established by the higher education institution are declared repeaters and have to repeat the corresponding year of study.

Professors may accept recognition of the examinations previously passed with a certain minimum mark.


In order to support educational and vocational guidance of the students and to facilitate their insertion on the labour market, in each higher education institution were established departments for career advice and employment guidance.

The departments have the following attributions:

  • To provide full information on the study programmes offered by the respective higher education institution.

  • To offer career and employment advice.

  • To ensure guidance to students willing to chose or change their vocational career.

  • To encourage graduates to affiliate into graduates’ associations meant to support higher education institutions and students’ interests in the relationship with firms, cultural communities and administrative bodies, at local and national level as well.

  • To carry out prognosis studies on the labour market, and provide information about companies needing and recruiting qualified personnel trained in higher education institutions.

  • To provide counselling, and support for the vocational training of students by maintaining a close contact with economic units.

Student assessment

Students' assessment in higher education is accomplished through periodic (summative) examinations organised for each subject in the curricula.

Assessments are performed in the form of:

  • oral questioning
  • written papers
  • practical examinations
  • project presentations.

The evaluation criteria for the academic and professional performances of the students are established by the higher education institutions according to the university autonomy.

The concrete requirements and evaluation criteria for each subject are regulated by the curricula (in the introductory section of each subject).

Evaluations of the students’ performances during higher education are materialized for each subject in marks on a 10-level scale, 5 representing the minimum passing mark.

The examination of the students for each subject is performed by a commission comprising the professor lecturing on the given subject assisted by at least one other specialist from the same chair/department.

After each examination the mark assigned to the student is registered in the students’ personal indexes and the official records of the institution.

Higher education institutions organise two regular examination sessions for the students during each academic year:

  • usually held in February and May-June respectively
  • at least one second examination session in autumn, before the beginning of the academic year.

The second examination sessions are organised for the students that did not attain or failed one or more examinations during the regular examination sessions.

Students are granted the possibility to try to pass the examination for a given subject (regular examination, second examination and re-examination) for three times; if failed each time, the student has to attend once more all the teaching-learning activities related to the respective subject.

Higher education institutions may establish certain fees for the second examinations and re-examinations in order to cover for the supplementary costs.


Master-degree studies are finalised through a dissertation exam during which the candidates have to present a dissertation in the specialisation of study.

The minimum passing mark for the dissertation exam is 6.00.

Graduation is attested through a Master studies diploma issued by the higher education institution.

For higher education, the final exams have to be taken before an exam commission established for each specialisation.

The exam commissions are established through decision of the rector of the higher education institution organizing the exams, based on the propositions of the faculty, college or department councils. The exam commission has to comprise at least three members with doctorate degrees and the chair has to be a professor or a lecturer.