General administration and management of the education and training system is ensured at the national level by the Ministry of National Education. In exercising its specific attributions, the Ministry of National Education cooperates at the central level with other Ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government.
The national educational policy is established by the Ministry of National Education, based on consultations with other involved institutions and ministries.
Public Pre-university education is part of the local decentralized public services and is subordinated to the Ministry of National Educationthrough the County School Inspectorates. These inspectorates ensure at local level observance of the legislation and evaluation of the education system and process as well as implementation of the educational policy.
Higher education is coordinated by the Ministry of National Education according to the university autonomy. Universities and other higher education institutions are autonomous and are guaranteed the right to establish and implement their own development policies by the law, within the general provisions of the in-force legislation.
The public Pre-university education network is organised and approved by the Ministry of National Education in cooperation and with the support of the local public administration, according to the demographic evolution and the training requirements.
Establishment of the higher education institutions is possible only through dedicated laws, according to the higher education institutions accreditation and diploma recognition procedures (Law 88/1993 amended through Law 144/1999).
Human resources policy in education is established by the Ministry of National Education, according to the provisions of the legislation and based on consultations with teachers’ unions.
Management of the human resources in Pre-tertiary education is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education and it is performed at local level through the County School Inspectorates.
The methodology for the teachers’ mobility (recruitment, selection, appointment and permanent or temporary transfer) is established every year through Ministerial Order, within the limits set by the law. Furthermore, the Ministry of National Educationcoordinates and supervises through the County School Inspectorates all the activities concerning the mobility of the teachers.
Management of the human resources in higher education is the responsibility of the higher education institutions, within the limits established by the law and according to the academic criteria set by the Ministry of National Education.
The Ministry of National Education is responsible for the elaboration of the national curriculum for Pre-university education: curriculum frameworks, syllabi and textbooks. Schools, in cooperation with the County School Inspectorates and local community representatives, establish the school based curriculum (local development curriculum for T/VET). Higher education curricula are established according to the university autonomy.
Public tertiary education is financed from the state budget based on financing contracts signed between the Ministry of National Education and the higher education institutions.
General Administration at National Level
The organisation and functioning of the Ministry of National Education is regulated through decisions of the Government, according to the general provisions of the Education Law (Law 84/1995, republished, subsequently amended and completed).
The Ministry of National Education has the responsibility to establish and implement the national educational policy and has initiative and execution rights in financing and human resources policies in education.
In exercising its specific attributions, the Ministry of National Education cooperates at the central level with other Ministries and institutional structures subordinated to the Government.
The decision-making process at the national level is assisted:
by experts’ bodies established by the Ministry of National Education
by consultative bodies established by the law:
the National Council for Education Reform
the National Council for Attesting Higher Education Titles, Diplomas and Certificates
the National Council for Financing Higher Education
the National Council for Scientific Research in Higher Education
the Libraries National Council
the National Council for Continuing Education and Training
the subject national commissions
the management structures of the reform projects.
In the consultation process the Ministry of National Education also involves national teachers’ professional associations and, as social partners, teachers’ unions and pupils’ and students’ associations recognised at national level.
Implementation of the major reform projects and the decentralisation process (See 2.1. and 2.2.) has led to the establishment through laws or decisions of the Government of a number of institutions or institutional structures external to the Ministry of National Education holding specific attributions:
the National Centre for Curriculum and Evaluation of Pre-tertiary Education (founded in 2007 by the reorganization of the National Council for Curriculum)
the National Service for Assessment and Evaluation
the National Centre for TVET Development
the National Commission for Pre-tertiary Education Evaluation and Accreditation
the National Council for Financing Public Pre-tertiary Education
the National Centre for In-service Training of the Pre-tertiary Education Staff
the National Centre for Recognition and Equivalence of Diplomas, etc.
In order to implement at national level the European Union action programmes in the field of education and training, the Socrates National Agency and the National Centre Leonardo da Vinci. Both institutions joined in 2005, and formed the National Agency for Community Programmes in the Field of Education and Training, which presently manages Erasmus + Programmes.
In November 2005, based on the Government Ordinance no. 75/2005 regarding quality assurance in education, the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance on Pre-tertiary Education (ARACIP) was founded, which took over the patrimony, the rights and obligations, the logistic infrastructure, the stuff and the database of the National Commission for Pre-tertiary Education Evaluation and Accreditation. (CNEAIP).
In establishing, coordinating and implementing the national educational policy, the Ministry of National Education has the following attributions:
To coordinate and control the national education system.
To organise the public educational network and to propose the enrolment quotas to the Government, based on prognosis studies and consultations with the schools, local public authorities and interested economic agents.
To approve and ensure observance of the National Curriculum and of the national evaluation system.
To coordinate the scientific research activity in education.
To ensure the framework for textbook production and to ensure schools financing for the acquisition of the textbooks, according to the provisions of the law.
To establish the general higher education admission criteria.
To approve establishment of high schools and post-high schools units.
To approve, in the conditions of the law, the organising and functioning regulations of the subordinated units, except for the higher education institutions.
To elaborate diagnose and prognosis studies in the domains of restructuring and modernisation of education and to contribute to the improvement of the legislative framework.
To ensure the framework for designing, homologation and production of educational means.
To ensure the organisational framework in selection and training of gifted pupils.
To ensure specialised schooling and adequate psycho-pedagogical support for children and youngsters with physical, sensorial, mental or associated disabilities.
To analyse social protection in education and to propose adequate measures to the Government and the local public authorities.
To coordinate the activity of the subordinated higher education libraries.
To assume the responsibility of initial and in-service teacher training.
To coordinate for the subordinated units, according to the provisions of the law, the appointment, transfer, dismissal, retirement and evidence of the teachers, teachers’ assistants and management, guiding and control personnel.
To ensure repartition of the training national Fund, based on consultations with the interested players.
To assume the responsibility of the national education system evaluation, according to the national standards.
To elaborate and implement the medium and long-term education and training reform strategies.
To elaborate in cooperation with other ministries the strategy for cooperation in the filed of education and scientific research with other states and international bodies.
To cooperate on a protocol-basis with the states where persons of Romanian nationality or origin live, in order to promote and provide education in the mother tongue.
To elaborate specific norms for school buildings and endowments.
To establish, based on internal norms, the means to recognise and validate the diplomas, certificates and scientific titles issued abroad, according to the international conventions.
To establish the structure of the school year for Pre-tertiary education, exams sessions, terms for organising contests and school holidays.
To control the observance of the norms for accounting-financial activity, budgetary execution and administration of the public national education system patrimony; to charge taxes, in RON and foreign currencies, to cover for the costs of study papers validation and recognition, according to the provisions of the law.
General Administration at Regional Level
Pre-university education, including schools of all levels, extra-school activities and auxiliary units, is subordinated to the Ministry of National Education through the County School Inspectorates acting as regional level deconcetrated specialised bodies with the following attributions:
To supervise the organisation and functioning of the Pre-tertiary educational network in accordance with the national educational policy.
To ensure implementation and observance of the legislation in organizing, management and deployment of the educational process.
To ensure quality of the education and observance of the national standards through the school inspection.
To establish, based on the Ministry of National Education endorsement, public schools as: kindergarten , primary, gimnaziu and VET schools.
To propose to the Ministry of National Educationthe pupils’ enrolment quotas for each education level, route, profile and specialisation at the county level – based on prognosis studies and following consultations with schools, local public administration authorities, economic agents and interested social partners.
To ensure together with the local public administration authorities schooling of the pupils during compulsory education.
To coordinate teachers’ recruitment, according to the provisions of the legislation.
To organise and guide the in-service teacher training as well as scientific research and other complementary activities in Pre-tertiary education.
To coordinate together with the local public administration authorities utilisation, development and preservation of the didactic material basis of the schools.
To coordinate schools’ admission and graduation exams as well as the educational competitions.
To control the activities and the Pre-university educational services provided by the economic agents, foundations, associations, religious cults and other bodies within the county.
To coordinate the activity of the libraries in the Pre-university education units subordinated.
To coordinate and control the Teaching Staff Centre – resource center for in-service teacher training.
County School Inspectorates design and implement their own budgets and are financed by the state through the Ministry of National Education budget.
The County School Inspectorates have specific attribution in financing certain educational institutions and activities, as established by the law.
Each County School Inspectorate evaluates annually the education system at the county level and, in base on this evaluation and the national educational policy, it establishes the management plan for the next school year. The management plan is discussed with the consultative bodies. After being approved by the administration council of the County School Inspectorate, the management plan becomes compulsory for all managerial structures of the education system at the county level.