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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Glossary

Poland

16.Glossary

Last update: 27 November 2023

asystent nauczyciela

Teacher assistant can be employed in grades 1 to 3 and day-care units in primary schools. School heads of primary schools in Poland (including special and integration schools) can employ teacher assistants with the aim of providing support to classroom teachers working in grades 1 to 3 and day-carers.

 

centrum kształcenia praktycznego

Practical Training Centre (PTC) – a centre providing practical vocational training for adult learners.

 

centrum kształcenia zawodowego i ustawicznego

Vocational and Continuing Education Centre (VCEC) – a cluster of schools for adult learners which includes at least one vocational school. It offers vocational qualification courses (kwalifikacyjny kurs zawodowy), vocational guidance and support, cooperates with employers and their associations.

 

dziekan

Head of faculty at a higher education institution.

 

egzamin maturalny

An external examination (set by the Central Examination Board, administered and assessed by the Regional Examination Boards) taken by pupils at the end of general and technical upper secondary schools. The written part includes the following subjects: Polish language, mathematics, modern foreign language and also a national minority language for those pupils for whom this language was the language of instruction. All these subjects are compulsory and are taken at the basic level. Additionally, for the written part, pupils have to choose 1 to 5 subjects from the list of optional subjects (extended level only). The oral part, prepared and assessed by the school teachers, consists of compulsory as well as additional subjects. Compulsory subjects are Polish language and a modern foreign language (as well as a national minority language for those pupils for whom this language was the language of instruction). This examination is not obligatory and gives access to higher education.

 

egzamin potwierdzający kwalifikacje w zawodzie

Examination confirming vocational qualifications designed to assess the level of acquisition by a pupil/learner of the knowledge and skills required for a given qualification, as defined in the core curriculum for vocational education. Examination confirming vocational qualifications consists of two parts: a written part and a practical part. On passing an exam for a single qualification, a pupil/adult learner receives a certificate issued by the Regional Examination Board, and after passing exams for all the qualifications required for a given occupation (and having completed the expected level of general education), he/she receives a diploma confirming all qualifications necessary for this occupation.

 

egzamin ósmoklasisty

An external compulsory examination (set by the Central Examination Board, administered and assessed by the Regional Examination Boards) taken by pupils at the end of the 8-year primary school (single structure education covering ISCED levels 1 and 2, end of compulsory full time education). It has been implemented since the school year 2018/19 and consist of three parts: Polish, maths and a modern foreign language. Its results will have a strong bearing on pupil’s admission to an upper secondary school.

 

egzamin zawodowy

Vocational examination, introduced in 2020, is conducted for occupations which are included in the 2019 classification of occupations for vocational education (vocational sector-based education where occupations are arranged by sector). This examination replaces the previous exam confirming qualifications for an occupation (see above) and is obligatory for vocational secondary school students. It is designed to assess the level of acquisition by a student/learner of the knowledge and skills required for a given qualification, as defined in the core curriculum for vocational education. Examination consists of two parts: a written part and a practical part. The written part of this exam is based exclusively on an electronic system which draws by lots exam tasks, using a published algorithm. Technical assistants are allowed to participate in the practical part. On passing an exam for a single qualification, a student/adult learner receives a certificate issued by the Regional Examination Board. Once a student / learner has obtained vocational qualification certificates for all qualifications identified within a given occupation and has completed education at the required level, he / she receives a vocational diploma.

 

gmina

The lowest level of the three-tier administrative division of the territory of Poland (commune).

 

język mniejszości narodowej

National minority language. The following 9 national minorities have been defined in the legislation: Byelorussian, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Armenian, Russian, Slovak, Ukrainian and Jewish. Their languages are considered to be national minority languages.

 

język mniejszości etnicznej

Ethnic minority language. The following 4 ethnic minorities have been defined in the legislation: Karaim, Lemko, Romany and Tatar. Their languages are considered to be ethnic minority languages.

 

język regionalny

Regional minority language. One community has been defined as using the regional language of Kashubians.

 

klub dziecięcy

Children’s club – an early childhood and education institution offering care to children aged 1 year and above, up to the start of pre-primary education (usually at the age of 3).

 

kolegium pracowników służb społecznych

Institution offering training for social workers. The Matura certificate is required for admission. The completion of these 3-year studies leads to obtaining of a diploma. A possibility of obtaining of the licencjat (Bachelor) title is also offered by the higher education institution exercising academic supervision over this institution.

 

kuratorium oświaty

Regional Educational Superintendent's Office or regional education authorities (REA).

 

kurator oświaty

Regional Educational Superintendent or head of regional education authorities (REA).

 

kwalifikacyjny kurs zawodowy

Vocational Qualification Course - a course which covers the content of core curriculum for training in particular vocations, particularly in relation to one qualification, and its completion leads to taking of an examination confirming one vocational qualification for a particular occupation.

 

kwestor

Chief accountant in a higher education institution responsible for financial management of the institution.

 

liceum ogólnokształcące

A 4-year upper secondary school offering general education to pupils aged 15 to 19 who left the primary school. Within the same school an old 3-year programme for graduates of phased out lower secondary schools operates in parallel with the new longer programme. At the end of the programme pupils can take the final examination called egzamin maturalny (Matura).

 

nauczyciel akademicki

Academic teacher - general term for teachers in higher education institutions. His/her professional obligations include teaching and research as well as managerial duties in HEIs.

 

nauczyciel bibliotekarz

Teacher librarian employed in school settings in a library. Duties include both provision of library services to school staff and pupils and training of all pupils in the use of library resources (1-2 hours of teaching per class per year).

 

nauczyciel doradca zawodowy

Teacher – specialist in vocational guidance responsible for provision of vocational guidance in school and non-school settings.

 

nauczyciel dyplomowany

Chartered teacher is a second step in the professional advancement of teachers. The chartered teacher’s contract is a permanent one. Their nomination has to be confirmed by kuratorium.

 

nauczyciel doradca metodyczny

Teacher (appointed or chartered) employed in a school setting nominated by the school management body as a methodological adviser in his/her subject.

 

nauczyciel konsultant

Teacher – specialist on continuing teacher training and teaching methods in a given subject, provides support and advice to school heads and teachers, employed in an in-service teacher training institution.

 

 

nauczyciel mianowany

Appointed teacher is a first step in the professional advancement of teachers. The appointed teacher’s contract is a permanent one. In order to be promoted to the next step (nauczyciel dyplomowany) the teacher has to complete a probation period and receive a positive assessment of his/her professional achievements.

 

nauczyciel pedagog

Teacher responsible for provision of pedagogical support in schools and counseling and support centres.

 

nauczyciel psycholog

Teacher responsible for provision of psychological support in schools and counseling and support centres.

 

nauczyciel początkujący

A novice teacher is a teacher who has no professional promotion grade and is required to complete an induction programme of 3 years and 9 months. The induction period takes place under the supervision of a “mentor” (supervising teacher). In order to complete an induction period and be promoted to the next grade (nauczyciel mianowany), a novice teacher should pass an exam for the appointed teacher grade, during which an exam board assesses the extent to which the teacher meets the requirements concerning knowledge and skills necessary for effective performance of the teacher’s duties.

 

nauczyciel wspomagający

Supporting teacher employed in special and integration school settings of all levels. Works with pupils/students with special educational needs.

 

niania

A nanny is a natural person employed on the basis of a written contract for the delivery of services concluded with parents of children aged 20 weeks and above.

 

obowiązek nauki

Part-time compulsory education (obligation to be in education) concerns pupils aged 15-18 and it may take place either in school settings (a student attends upper secondary school) or in non-school settings (e.g. a student follows vocational training offered by employers).

 

obowiązek szkolny

Full-time compulsory education (obligation to attend 8-year primary school covering two ISCED levels -1 and 2) applies to pupils aged 7-15 years.

 

oddział przedszkolny

Institution based at the primary school offering 3 years of full-time pre-primary education for children aged 3-6. The admission is based on age.

 

opiekun dzienny

A day child carer or minder is a natural person employed by the commune (gmina). He/she provides care for children aged 20 weeks and above. The maximum number of children under the care of a child minder is normally 5.

 

opiekun stażu (mentor)

Supervising teacher, an experienced teacher (with an appointed or chartered grade) who is nominated by the school head in order to supervise the trainee teacher during his/her induction period as well as to support the contract teacher in his/her preparation for promotion to the next grade (appointed teacher).

 

ośrodek dokształcania i doskonalenia zawodowego (ODDZ)

Further and In-service Training Centre – a centre providing vocational training to adult learners offering an opportunity to gain and develop knowledge and skills in particular professions.

 

powiat

The intermediate level of the three-tier administrative division of the territory of Poland (district).

 

punkt przedszkolny

Pre-school centre - so called “other form of pre-primary education”, an institution offering pre-primary education to children aged 3 to 6. The admission is based on age. Classes in pre-school centres are offered throughout the school year, except for breaks established by the school managing body.

 

przedszkole

Institution offering 3 years of full-time pre-primary education for children aged 3-6. The admission is based on age.

 

rada pedagogiczna

The teaching council is a collective school governing body which is established in every school with at least 3 teachers employed. The teaching council is concerned with the performance of the school's or institution's statutory tasks related to education and care. The teaching council is chaired by the head of school and it consists of all teachers employed in the school or institution.

 

rada rodziców

The parents’ council is a body representing all pupils’ parents in a given school. It is elected by direct vote of all parents present during the first school meeting of the year. Every class is represented by one parent. Establishment of the parents’ council is obligatory. The council issues opinions and advice to the school head and can collect its own funds.

 

rada szkoły

The school council is a collegial school body representing all teachers, pupils’ parents and pupils in a given school. Its establishment is not obligatory. The council actively participates in solving the school’s internal problems. It can collect its own funds.

 

rektor

Head of higher education institution.

 

samorząd uczniów

Pupils’ self-government is a representation of all pupils of a given school elected in a direct democratic vote. The pupils’ self-government represents all pupils in contacts with the school head, parents and education authorities. It issues opinions and should be involved in the decision making process at school. It receives support and advice from one of the teachers (elected by the pupils) who acts as its mentor.

 

studia niestacjonarne

Part-time programmes in higher education institutions. A form of study other than (different from) the full-study programme as indicated by the senate of a given HEI.

 

studia podyplomowe

Non-degree postgraduate programmes offered by higher education institutions to adult learners with a Bachelor degree at the minimum.

 

studia stacjonarne

Full-time programmes in higher education institutions. A form of study in which min. half of the study programme is implemented as class hours requiring direct participation (attendance) of academic teachers and students.

 

szkoła branżowa I stopnia

Institution offering 3 years of upper secondary vocational education for pupils who left the primary school. Students and graduates can take exam or exams confirming vocational qualifications for a particular trade or occupation.

 

szkoła branżowa II stopnia

Institution offering 2 years of secondary vocational education for pupils who left the szkoła branżowa I stopnia. Students and graduates can take exam or exams confirming vocational qualifications for a particular trade or occupation and egzamin maturalny.

 

szkoła integracyjna

A school which provides education to both regular pupils and those with special educational needs.

 

szkoła podstawowa

Institution introduced in September 2017 offering 8 years of full-time primary and lower secondary education for pupils aged 7 to 15. It covers both ISCED levels 1 and 2 (single structure education). The admission is based on age. At the end of the programme pupils take a compulsory external exam (egzamin ósmoklasisty).

 

szkoła policealna

Institution offering advanced vocational and technical courses for adult students who hold an upper general secondary school leaving certificate.

 

szkoła specjalna

A school which provides education to pupils with special educational needs.

 

technikum

A 5-year upper secondary school offering general and technical education to pupils aged 15  to 20 years who left the primary school. Within the same school an old 4- year programme for graduates of phased out lower secondary schools operates in parallel with the new longer programme. At the end of the programme pupils can take the final Matura examination as well as exams confirming vocational qualifications.

 

uczelnia akademicka

University-type higher education institution in which at least one organisational unit is authorised to confer the academic degree of doctor. They are authorised to offer three cycles of degree programmes, including first-cycle studies (3 or 4 years), second-cycle (2 years) or uniform (5 or 6 years) and third-cycle studies (doctoral studies).

 

uczelnia zawodowa

Higher education institution providing first-cycle (3 or 4 years), second-cycle (2 years) or uniform (5 or 6 years) programmes which is not authorised to confer the academic degree of doctor.

 

województwo

The highest level of the three-tier administrative division of the territory of Poland (province/region).

 

zespół wychowania przedszkolnego

Pre-school unit - so called “other form of pre-primary education”, an institution offering pre-primary education to children aged 3 to 6. The admission is based on age. Classes in pre-school units take place on some of the weekdays.

 

żłobek

Crèche – early education and care institution offering care to children at least at the age of 20 weeks up to the age of entry to pre-primary education (usually at the age of 3).