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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Primary education


5.Primary education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Primary education is a part of the compulsory education and can be organised in public and private schools.

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), primary education includes:

  • the preparatory grade
  • I to IV grades.

The measure of introducing the preparatory year in primary school is applicable beginning 2012 – 2013 school year.

A class of any grade in primary education works with one teacher and comprises in average 20 pupils, but no less than 12 and no more than 25.

However, the Ministry of Education can approve classes below the minimum or over the maximum number of pupils per class – according to the specific conditions (isolated areas, classes with tuition in the languages of the national minorities, etc.).

Textbooks for public primary education are provided free of charge.

School-based assessment, summative and formative, is conducted at classroom and school level, according to The National Education Law no.1 / 2011, with the legal updates and changes.

A new Ministerial Order 4183/2022 promotes the Regulation for Organisation and Functioning of Pre-university Education Institutions updating the range of assessment instruments to be used at school level. These can include:

  • oral questioning
  • written papers/ tests
  • scientific experiments and practical activities
  • reports
  • projects
  • practical tests as well as other instruments elaborated by the school’s chairs/departments and approved by the head of school or elaborated by the Ministry of Education and the County School Inspectorates.

There are no national standardized tests administered in pre-university education, at system level.