The education, as a factor of progress, in Romania, is based on the equal opportunities principle, which implicitly leads to a high level of mobility.
The Romanian educational system seeks to improve performance as regards the mobility, area that has a major impact not just on the learning and professional training, independence and social interdependence, cross-cultural communication experiences, but also on the labor market integration.
The educational policy promoted in Romania supports the mobility and exchange for pupils and teachers at all levels of education. Based on experience, the mobility and exchange actions have proven to contribute to opening the national educational system to policies and practices that promoted the development of quality in the education system.
Pupil and student mobility
The mobility and exchange for pupils in Romania are ensured by the following types of cooperation programmes and initiatives in the field of education and training:
- The European Union Programmes
- Programmes of cooperation and bilateral initiatives
- Programmes of cooperation and multilateral initiatives (other than the action programmes of the European Community)
- Unilateral initiatives for supporting the pupils’ mobility
- Virtual mobility through e-Twinning type projects or own initiatives as a result of the educational partnerships/agreements.
The types of activities involved, the duration, the sources and the funding mechanisms, as well as the bodies responsible regarding the pupils’ mobility through the programmes of the European Union are established within the legal framework and the guidelines of the respective programmes.
The mobility and the exchange of pupils within the cooperation programmes and the bi- and multilateral initiatives in the field of education and professional training are regulated through the conventions concluded between the Romanian Government/ the Ministry of National Education and the Governments/ministries of education from the respective countries. According to the specificity of the programme and the parties’ interests, the bi- and multilateral cooperation programmes may include the mutual granting of scholarships – for partial or complete studies at various levels of education.
Regardless of the type of scholarship granted, the duration of studies performed abroad is completely acknowledged on the pupil’s return to the country.
Mobility and exchanges for the Romanian teaching staff are provided through the following types of cooperation programmes and initiatives in education and training:
- The European Union Programmes and the European Council programmes for the continuous training of the educational personnel
- Cooperation programmes and bilateral initiatives
- Cooperation programmes and multilateral initiatives (other than the European Union programmes)
- Unilateral initiatives for supporting the mobility of the teaching staff.
The types of activities involved the duration, the sources and the funding mechanisms, as well as the responsible bodies regarding the mobility of the teaching staff by means of the European Union programmes and the European Council training programmes are established within the legal framework and within the guidelines of the respective programmes.
The mobility and the exchange of the teaching staff within the cooperation programmes and the bi- and multilateral initiatives in the education and professional training field are regulated through the conventions concluded between the Romanian Government/ the Ministry of National Education and the Governments/ ministries of education from the respective countries. Depending on the specificity of the programme and the parties’ interests, the bi- and multilateral cooperation programmes may include the mobility of the teaching staff, the mutual granting of scholarships or grants, the organization of various conferences, seminars, etc.
The teaching staff in the pre-university education which attends continuous training programmes abroad may request the acknowledgement and equivalence of the respective programme as part of the mandatory periodical development.
During the participation at mobility and exchange activities, the teaching staff may be remunerated by the Romanian state or by the host country – according to the duration and the type of activity, as well as on the concrete agreement based upon which the activity is carried out.
For example, during the mobilities performed in the European Union programmes in the education and professional training field, the salaries of the teaching staff are paid by the Romanian state, while the direct costs concerning the mobility (transportation expenses, allowance, schooling fees, etc.) are covered according to the regulations of the respective programmes.
At the same time, Romania has ratified with numerous states bilateral conventions for avoiding the double taxation of the citizens of the respective countries in the periods in which they are legally remunerated for various activities.
These conventions explicitly stipulate the periods of tax exemption for the teaching staff that is remunerated only for teaching and/or research activities in the partner state.