The following mobility programmes are available for Estonian students:
- Youth for Understanding (YFU) exchange programmes (year, semester and summer programmes);
- Erasmus+ short- and long-term study mobility individually and in groups for pupils of general education schools;
- Work practice of vocational educational institutions under Erasmus+ study mobility;
- Nordplus Junior study mobility for the students of preschool child care institutions, basic schools, upper secondary schools, vocational educational institutions, nationally accredited sports schools and music schools.
The participation in the EU Erasmus+ programme and the Nordplus Junior programme is organised by Erasmus+ and the European Solidarity Corps Agency, while YFU Estonia organises the participation in the Youth for Understanding programmes.
The mobility of students in general education through the Erasmus+ programme involves studying together with their peers in the country of destination. Study visits will normally take place at a partner school, or in exceptional cases at another suitable institution. The short-term study mobility lasts 10-29 days; for participants with lesser opportunities, the study mobility can start from two days. Long-term study mobility can last 30-365 days and group study mobility 2-30 days. Individuals cannot apply for an Erasmus+ grant - the project is submitted by a school the of which participate in a study visit. Costs of study mobility include the costs of preparation, travel to and from the country of destination and living expenses in the country of destination. Under certain conditions, the costs of the person accompanying the participants will also be covered.
For vocational students, study mobility involves internships in companies, VET institutions or other suitable organisations located abroad. An internship is a period an intern spends studying and working abroad under a prior co-operation agreement between the sending and host institution. Students in initial and continuing VET, including participants in work-based learning and recent graduates (12 months after graduation) can participate in study mobility. Short-term study mobility lasts 10-89 days. For participants with lesser opportunities, the mobility can start from two days in justified cases. Long-term study mobility can last 90-365 days and in addition, it is possible to participate in professional competitions for 1-10 days. A study mobility project is submitted by a school the students or recent graduates of which will participate in a mobility visit; Erasmus+ grants are not available for individuals. Costs of study mobility include the costs of preparation, travel to and from the country of destination and living expenses in the country of destination. Under certain conditions, the costs of the person accompanying the participants will also be covered.
The 12-17-year-old children with Estonian background living outside Estonia who have not lived in Estonia for the last 5 years have an opportunity to participate in the children summer camps under the programme Rahvuskaaslased (Compatriots) where the scholarship is used to cover the participation fee.
Since 2005 when Estonia joined the Convention defining the Statute of the European Schools, the children of the Estonian citizens who hold employment with EU institutions, the Permanent Representation of Estonia to the European Union and various international organisations have had an opportunity to study at the European Schools. It is very important that in these schools Estonian is learned as a mother tongue, which enables the children, after their return to Estonia, to continue studies in a general education school on an equal basis with others and compete for university places or in the labour market. In the academic year 2020/21, 255 Estonian students are enrolled in the European Schools outside Estonia. Estonian students study at the European Schools of Brussels I, II, III and IV, at the European Schools of Luxembourg I and II, at the European School of Munich, at the European Schools of Frankfurt, Helsinki and Alicante. At the European School of Brussels IV in Laeken, there is an Estonian section where Estonian children learn most of the subjects in Estonian.
Under the learning mobility measure of the EU Erasmus+ programme, the teachers of preschool educational institutions, general schools, vocational schools and hobby schools, school leaders and other specialists working in general education schools - assistant teachers, special pedagogues, study counsellors, psychologists, and education managers have an opportunity to participate in in-service training courses and conferences, to be a job shadow and teach in the EU Member and candidate states. In addition, cooperation between schools carried out under a strategic measure also support learning mobility. Study mobility programmes have been very popular.
The Nordplus Junior programme offers opportunities for the exchange of teachers and education actors, job shadowing and taking study visits; an exchange teacher may teach in several schools (for a period of one week to one year). The programme covers travelling expenses on the basis of the established support rates (the amount depends on the destination state); daily allowance is intended to cover accommodation and subsistence costs.
Participation in EU Erasmus+ programme and the Nordplus Junior programme is coordinated in Estonia by Erasmus+ and the European Solidarity Corps Agency, the Pestalozzi programme is coordinated in Estonia by the Ministry of Education and Research.
The European School system is based on secondment of teachers from EU member states pursuant to the convention. Joining the Convention defining the Statute of the European Schools in 2005 allows for the secondment of Estonian teachers and heads of schools to the European Schools by the state for up to nine years. In the academic year 2020/21, 12 teachers and heads of schools were seconded by the state of Estonia to work in the European Schools in Brussels, Bergen, Luxembourg and Alicante.