The main instrument for mobility in education is the Erasmus+ Programme, EU Programme in the fields of education, training, youth and sport for the period 2014-2020. Previous sectoral programmes relevant for the mobility of pupil and student mobility and teacher mobility were Comenius and Leonardo da Vinci. Both, predecessor programme Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) and Erasmus+ Programme are in Croatia managed by the National Agency – Agency for Mobility and EU Programmes. Croatia became full member of LLP in 2011, and Erasmus+ is implemented in Croatia since its beginning.
The Erasmus+ Programme encompasses two sectoral areas focused on mobility in early childhood and school education:
- school education
- vocational education and training.
The Erasmus+ Programme in the school education field focuses on all levels of school education, from pre-school institutions and primary schools to secondary schools.
The aim of the Erasmus+ Programme in the field of school education is to improve the quality of education, teaching and learning from pre-school to secondary level education in schools and kindergartens across Europe. It provides opportunities for staff in the field of pre-school education to develop professional skills and to work with partners in Europe. The activities planned support the exchange of good practice and the testing of innovative approaches. The aim is to address common challenges such as early school leaving and low levels of basic skills. Activities can strengthen relationships with the outside world and other areas of education and training.
The aim of the Erasmus+ Programme in the field of vocational education and training is to improve the quality of vocational education and training throughout Europe and to provide opportunities for students and staff in vocational education and training to educate themselves abroad. Participation in strategic partnerships with other organisations and businesses to establish close links between education and training and the world of business is encouraged. In general, the aim is to help improve the employability and competences of individuals and to contribute to the competitiveness of the European economy.
Pupil and Student Mobility
The main instrument for mobility in education is the Erasmus+ Programme. In Croatia the Programme is managed and implemented by the National Agency – Agency for Mobility and EU Programmes. Mobility of students is implemented under the Key Action 1 – Learning Mobility of Individuals (specifically Mobility projects for VET learners and staff).
Students may take part in a VET mobility project in form of one or more of the following activities of learners’ mobility:
- mobility in VET providers and/or companies abroad lasting from 2 weeks to less than 3 months
- long-term mobility in VET providers and/or companies abroad (ErasmusPro) from 3 to 12 months.
Students in VET programmes can go abroad as interns or apprentices in companies, in a workplace such as a public or non-governmental organisation and in a VET institution with periods of work-based learning in a company.
Activities are open to VET learners in vocational schools. To strengthen the employability of VET learners and to facilitate their transition to the labour market, recent graduates (less than 12 months after graduation), can also participate in these activities. Activities can take the form of full work placements with learners hosted in a company or other relevant organisation, or at a VET provider (a school, institute or other organisation providing vocational education and training) offering a combination of school-based learning and a work-based component (work placements). In the case of long-term mobilities (ErasmusPro), the activity has a clear work-based learning component.
The learning outcomes are formally recognised and validated at an institutional level. Course contents are adapted as necessary to ensure that the mobility period abroad is well fitted to the course in which the apprentice/VET learner is enrolled.
Furthermore, within other activities of the Erasmus+ Programme, mobilities of students are possible. For example, in the Strategic Partnerships there are possible three types of student mobilities: blended mobility of pupils, learners and young people (short-term physical mobility of 5 days to 2 months combined with virtual mobility), short-term exchange of groups of pupils (3 days to 2 months), and long-term study mobility of pupils (2 to 12 months, pupils aged 14 or older). Mobility of young people (aged between 13 and 30) including students is possible under Key Action 1 – Mobility for young people and youth workers.
The main instrument for mobility in education is the Erasmus+ Programme. In Croatia the Programme is managed and implemented by the National Agency – Agency for Mobility and EU Programmes. Mobility of teachers is implemented under the Key Action 1 – Learning Mobility of Individuals (specifically Mobility projects for school education staff and Mobility projects for VET learners and staff).
In the field of school education teachers can participate in following activities:
- teaching assignments allow teachers or other school education staff to teach at a partner school abroad
- structured courses or training events abroad support the professional development of teachers, school leaders or other educational staff
- job shadowing provides opportunities for teachers, school leaders or other school staff to spend a period abroad in a partner school or another relevant organisation active in the field of school education.
In the field of VET teachers can also participate in mobility projects in following activities:
- teaching/training assignments allow staff of VET providers to teach at a partner VET provider abroad
- staff training supports the professional development of VET staff in the form of a work placement or a job shadowing/observation period abroad in a company or any other VET provider.
The mobility of teachers both in school education and VET lasts from 2 days to 2 months.
Furthermore, within other activities of the Erasmus+ Programme, mobilities of teachers are possible. For example, in the Strategic Partnerships short-term joint staff training events (3 days to 2 months) and long-term teaching or training assignments (2 to 12 months) are possible.