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Assessment in primary education


5.Primary education

5.3Assessment in primary education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Pupil Assessment

According to the provisions of the Law of National Education (Law 1/2011), the purpose of the pupils’ evaluation is to guide and optimize learning.

All pupils’ evaluations of are made based on the national evaluation standards set in the schooling programmes for each subject.

The results of the pupils’ evaluations are expresses, by qualifiers, in the primary education.

Teacher’s use and compliance with the national evaluation standards shall be verified by school inspections. Marking without observing and using national standards and evaluation methodologies shall be sanctioned according to the provisions of the law.

Pupils’ evaluation focuses on competences, provides pupils with real feedback and is the basis of the individual schooling plans.

Pupils with learning disabilities must be provided with remedial education.

At the end of the preparatory grade, the responsible teacher draws up, based on a methodology elaborated by the Ministry of Education and Research a report for the evaluation of the physical, social, emotional and cognitive development of language and communication, as well as the development of learning abilities and attitudes.

The general and specific rules regarding the evaluation, assessment and progression of the pupils are established by the Ministry of Education and Research within the Regulation for Organisation and Functioning of Pre-universitary Education Institutions (Ministerial Order 5447/2020).

Pupils’ evaluation has to be performed on a regular basis for all subjects (compulsory and optional) during the semesters by the teachers working with the class (continuous evaluation). Each semester includes periods dedicated to the consolidation and evaluation of the competences acquired by the pupils (formative and summative evaluations) decided by the teachers working with the class. Usually these periods are established towards the end of the semester and teachers foresee: to improve the teaching-learning process results; to support systematisation of the knowledge acquired; to stimulate the performances of low and high achievers.

Evaluation methods and instruments are established by the teacher according to the age and psychological particularities of the pupils and taking the specificity of the subject into consideration. 

These can include: a) oral questioning; b) written papers /tests; c) scientific experiments and practical activities; d) reports; e)projects; f) practical tests as well as other instruments elaborated by the school’s chairs/departments and approved by the head of school or elaborated by the Ministry of Education and Research and the County School Inspectorates.

During primary education, each evaluation (continuous, formative or summative) of the pupils’ performances for each subject is materialised in a qualitative mark on a 4-level scale: insufficient, sufficient, good and very good. The final semester and school year qualitative mark for each subject has to be within the 4-level scale mentioned above.

Evaluation of the pupils is performed according to the curricular performance standards established for each subject and grade.

The mark assigned by the teachers following each evaluation has to be communicated to the pupils. 

The teachers have also the obligation to immediately register the mark in the class’ index and the pupils’ personal indexes under the corresponding subject. At the end of each semester and of the school year the final average marks for each subject are registered in the class’ index and the pupils’ personal indexes. The school year average final marks for each subject are also registered in the general school matriculation index. The official school record of the pupils’ results during all schooling period comprises the classes’ indexes and the school matriculation index – official documents that are permanently archived by the school or, later on, by the State’s Archives.

The number of marks assigned during a semester to each pupil for each subject has to be at least equal to the number of classes per week established by the curriculum frameworks for the given subject and grade.

At the end of each semester and at the end of the school year teachers have the obligation to conclude the academic situation of each pupil for each subject. Conclusion of the academic situation consists of calculating/establishing and registering in the school records the final average mark/qualitative mark for each subject. 

In primary education, taking into account that marks are qualitative, the teachers establish the final average marks as follows:

  • To establish the semester final average mark for each subject: following summative evaluations performed during the consolidation and evaluation period, teachers choose one of the two marks assigned with the highest frequency during continuous evaluation. 

  • To establish the school year final average mark for each subject: teachers choose between one of the semester average marks according to the following criteria: the progress/regress in the pupil’s performance; the effort-performance ratio; the evolution of the pupil’s motivation, and accomplishment of the supplementary training/recovering programme established by the teacher.

Taking the results of the continuous evaluations into consideration, teachers can decide on performing remedial education for the low achievers. Remedial education can be accomplished either within the school-based curriculum (further study classes) and/or extra-curricular activities or during afternoon activities in the schools that organise such activities. Alternatively, teachers can rely on differentiated activities performed during the daily normal programme.

Progression of Pupils

In primary education, pupils can progress from one grade to the next one if for each subject studied in the given grade their school year final average qualitative mark is at least sufficient

Are declared postponed for the semester/school year pupils for which the academic situation for one or more subjects cannot be concluded due to either of the following reasons:

  • They have been registered during the semester or the school year with a number of absences exceeding 50% of the total number of classes for the given subject(s) and as a consequence they could not be evaluated.

  • They have been released of participating to lessons by the head of school during the participation to festivals or professional, cultural, arts or sports national or international contests.

  • They have benefited of a study scholarships that is recognised by the Ministry of Education and Research.

  • They have been studying for a given period of time abroad.

The academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the first semester has to be concluded during the first four weeks of the second semester. 

The academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the second semester or for the school year has to be concluded during the summer vacation in a period established by the head of school, previous to the second examination session (see below). Conclusion of the academic situation of the pupils declared postponed for the semester or the school year has to be accomplished according to the rules of the second examination.

Pupils that do not attain the minimum sufficient school year final average mark to a given subject are declared failed for the considered subject. Pupils that failed no more than two subjects are given the possibility to take a second examination during the summer vacation in a period established by the Ministry of Education and Research. It is mandatory that the pupils prepare for the second examination all the content set by the syllabus for the given subject and grade. 

The second examination is performed by an exam commission nominated by the head of school and consisting of a chair and two teachers – one of them being the teacher that works with the examined pupil(s). Subject to the decision of the head of school, the second examination consists of two out of the following possible three assessments: an oral questioning, a written paper and a practical activity. In most cases the combination used is the oral questioning and the written paper – except for the subjects that are predominantly based on practical activities (such as the ones included in the curricular area Technologies).

The written paper takes 45 minutes for pupils in primary education and the pupils are allowed to choose between two different items. For the oral questioning pupils extract randomly an exam-question from the ones prepared by the commission. Pupils are allowed to change the exam-question twice, subject to the corresponding diminishing of the mark for each change. During the oral questioning pupils present the answers for the exam-question; teachers are allowed to support the pupil through supplementary orientation-questions.

Each teacher member of the exam commission assigns independently a mark for each assessment and a final mark for the second examination. Considering that for primary education marks are qualitative, the final result of the second examination is established by the exam commission based on consultations between its members. The final mark assigned for the second examination becomes the school year final average mark for the given subject and is recorded in the school official documents – the class’ index and the general school matriculation index. Pupils that fail the second examination to only one subject (final mark insufficient) may be allowed, upon the written request of the parents and subject to the decision of the head of school, to sit a re-examination before the start of the school year. 

According to the in-force legislation pupils are declared repeaters if they are in one of the following situations by the beginning of the school year: 

  • Pupils that were given the final average mark insufficient in more than two subjects (no second examination allowed in this case).

  • Pupils that were given the final average mark insufficient for behaviour (separately marked by the class’ teacher/tutor teacher).

  • Pupils that failed one or two subjects and that either did not sit or did not pass the second examination for at least one subject. 

  • Postponed pupils that did not sit the examination necessary for conclusion of their academic situation for at least one subject. 

  • Pupils that were expelled (with re-matriculation right) due to extremely bad behaviour (not applicable during compulsory education).

Repeaters can re-matriculate in the corresponding grade the following school year in the same school or in a different one. 

For the compulsory education sequence, individuals exceeding with more than 2 years the normal age of a given grade are considered in a school abandon situation. For individuals in a school abandon situation, education within the compulsory sequence can be provided in other forms than day-classes – evening classes, part-time education, distance learning – according to the rules established by the Ministry of Education and Research. The Ministry of Education and Research can also approve organisation of courses for individuals older than 14 that did not complete primary education (Second chance education).

The Teachers’ council validates in the plenary sessions organised at the end of the semester/school year the overall academic situation of all pupils as presented by the classes’ teachers/tutor teachers. The secretary of the teachers’ council registers in the plenary sessions’ records the academic situation of the pupils by class, nominating the promoted, the failed, the repeaters and the postponed pupils. 

The academic situation of the failed, the repeaters and the postponed pupils is communicated in writing by the class’ teacher/tutor teacher to the pupil’s parents or legally appointed guardians, at the latest 10 days after the conclusion of the semester/school year; parents or legally appointed guardians have also to be informed on the periods in which the second examination takes place. 

Most schools organise intensive remedial education periods during the summer vacation for the pupils that failed one or two subjects in order to support their preparation for the second examination.

By the end of the first semester and of the school year every school has the obligation to report the statistical situation of the pupils – both to the County School Inspectorate and the county branch of the National Institute of the Statistics. The head of school has to mention and analyse the statistical situation of the pupils in his/her semester/school year report. The statistical situations are centralised by the National Institute for Statistics and the Ministry of Education and Research and become part of the Statistical Yearbook and of the annual evaluation report of the Ministry of Education and Research.


There are neither a leaving examination nor a formal certification at the end of primary education, pupils graduating primary education being promoted directly into gimnaziu (grades V to VIII).

In certain cases (individuals in a school abandon situation, pupils continuing their studies abroad, etc.) the school issues a copy from the general school matriculation index – the Matriculation Fiche (Foaia matricolă) listing all the subjects and marks for each promoted school year – upon written request.