Skip to main content
European Commission logo
EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Fundamental principles and national policies


2.Organisation and governance

2.1Fundamental principles and national policies

Last update: 27 November 2023

Romanian Constitution

Basic principles regarding the education in Romania are established by the Constitution, Chapter II – Fundamental rights and liberties, Article 32 – Right to education.

According to this article:

  • The right to education is ensured through general compulsory education, high school , vocational education and training , higher education, as well as through other forms of instruction and professional development.

  • Generally, education at all levels is provided in Romanian; education can be also provided in foreign languages.

  • The right of the persons belonging to national minorities to learn their mother tongue and the right to be instructed in their mother tongue is guaranteed; the modalities to exercise these rights are established through law.

  • State education is free of charge. The State provides scholarships to children and youngsters from disadvantaged families or institutionalised.

  • Education of all levels is provided in public, private and confessional institutions.

  • University autonomy is guaranteed.

  • The state guarantees the liberty of religious education, according to specific requirements of each religious cult.

The Law of the National Education

The Law of the National Education (Law no. 1/2011) provides the legal framework for the exercise of the basic right to lifetime an education under the authority of the Romanian state. The law regulates the structure, the functions, the organization and functioning of the national state, private and confessional educational system.

The law aims at promoting an education based on values, creativity, cognitive and will capacities and action-based capacities, fundamental knowledge and skills, knowledge and abilities of direct usage, in the profession and the society. The law aims at forming by means of education the mental infrastructure of the Romanian society, in accordance with the new requirements imposed by Romania’s EU membership and by the existence within the context of the globalization .

The educational ideal of the Romanian school consists in the free, and harmonious of human individuality, in forming the autonomous personality and in assuming a system of values which are necessary to personal development, the development of the entrepreneurship  spirit, the active citizenship , social integration and employment.

The state provides Romanian citizens with equal rights of access to all levels and forms of pre-university and higher education, as well as lifetime education without any form of discrimination. The citizens of the other EU states and the states belonging to the European Economic Space and Swiss confederation enjoy the same rights. The rights are equally acknowledged for all under-age population who request or have received a form of protection in Romania, foreign under-age and stateless children whose residence in Romania is officially acknowledged according to the law. 

In Romania, education is a national priority. 

The principles governing Romanian pre-university and higher education are:

  • The principle of fairness, according to which the access to educational opportunities is made without discrimination.

  • The principle of quality, based on which educational activities are performed according to international and national reference standards and good practice.

  • The principle of relevance, according to which education meets the need for personal development and social-economical needs.

  • The principle of efficiency, for maximum educational performance, by managing the current resources.

  • The principle of decentralization, based on which the main decisions are made by the stakeholders directly involved in the process.

  • The principle of public responsibility, based on which Educational facilities and institutions are publicly responsible for their performance.

  • The principle of the guarantee of cultural identity for all Romanian citizens and intercultural dialogue.

  • The principle of the assumption, promotion and safeguarding national identity and cultural values of the Romanian people.

  • The principle of the recognition and guarantee of rights to those belonging to national minorities, the right to keep, develop and express their ethnical, cultural, language and religious identity.

  • The principle of ensuring equal opportunities.

  • The principle of the autonomy of the university.

  • The principle of academic freedom.

  • The principle of transparency – materializing in ensuring total visibility of decision and results, through their regular and adequate notification.

  • The principle of the freedom of thought and independence towards ideologies, religious dogmas and political doctrines.

  • The principle of social integration.

  • The principle of beneficiary-based education.

  • The principle of parent participation and responsibilities.

  • The principle of promoting education for health, including through exercise and sports.

  • The principle of the organization of confessional education according to the specific requirements of every acknowledged cult.

  • The principle of dialogue and consultation-based decisions.

  • The principle of respecting the right to opinion of students, in their capacity as direct beneficiaries of the educational system.

The purpose of the education and vocational training of children, young people and adults is to develop competences, in the form of a multifunctional and transferable set of knowledge, skills/abilities and aptitudes, necessary for:

  • Personal accomplishment and development by achieving personal life objectives.

  • Social integration and active civic participation to the society.

  • Holding a job and taking part into the functioning and development of a sustainable economy.

  • Forming an outlook on life, based on human and scientific values, national and universal culture and stimulation of intercultural dialogue.

  • Education based on dignity, tolerance and observance of human fundamental rights and freedom.

  • Cultivation of sensibility towards human problems, the moral and civic values and respect for natural, social and cultural environment.

The Ministry of National Education develops and applies national educational strategies, by consulting the main social partners (representative didactic staff associations, the National Council of Rectors, university and state, private and religious, the Council of National Minorities, unions, public administration authorities, business environment, school associations, representative parents’ associations, representative educational trade unions, representative pupils’ associations, representative students’ associations and financing non-government associations supporting educational programmes/federations of the social services providers).

The State encourages the development of public–private partnerships.

The current management and administration of the education system is performed at national level through Decisions of the Government and Orders of the Minister of National Education.