For teaching, management, guidance and control staff, the continuing training is a right and an obligation (Law1/2011, art. 245). Continuing professional development of teachers, management, guidance and control staff and professional retraining are based on professional standards for the teaching profession, quality standards and professional competences.
Continuous professional development of teachers, management, guidance and control staff is achieved according to the development in the field of education and professional training, including in terms of the national curriculum, and according to the personal interests and needs for development.
Career evolution is done through the 2nd teaching degree and the 1st teaching degree, and through certification exams for different levels of competence.
The examination topics, the bibliography and the procedure for organizing and conducting the examinations for obtaining the teaching degrees are regulated by a methodology developed by the Ministry of Education.
Teaching staff, as well as the management, guidance and control staff in the pre-university education are obliged to participate periodically in the continuous training programs, so as to accumulate, at each consecutive interval of 5 years minimum 90 professional credits transferable (Law 1/2011, art. 145).
According to the Methodology regarding the continuous professional development of teachers in the pre-university education (ART. 4), the continuous training is carried out mainly through:
a) programs and activities for the improvement of scientific, psycho-pedagogical and pedagogical training
b) training programs in the fields of management, guidance and evaluation of education
c) training courses and taking the examinations for obtaining the didactic degrees II and I
d) professional conversion programs
e) studies corresponding to a specialization in another field of license.
Continuous professional evelopment of teachers ensures the updating and development of the competences of the teaching staff, including the acquisition of new skills, according to the educational needs and of the educational curriculum, as well as according to the requirements regarding the adaptation of the competences of the teaching staff to the changes in educational system.
The main areas in which the competences corresponding to the teaching profession are defined are:
a) the field of specialization and didactics of specialization corresponding to the educational disciplines and the function held by the teacher
b) the field of education pedagogy and psychology
c) the field of educational management and school legislation
d) the field of information and communication techniques applied in teaching and learning processes, in institutional management and data management
e) inter-trans-disciplinary and cross-curricular fields aiming at alternative and complementary training strategies, research and innovation, communication and partnerships with the social environment, etc.
According to Law 1/2011 (Art. 477), within the programs of continuing professional development of the teaching staff will be introduced information sessions / training courses on the problems related to the learning disorders, in order to acquire competences in identifying them and the capacity of learning. application of appropriate teaching strategies.
Continuous training of teachers is based on the paradigm of approaching through competences and on the concept of cumulative development of competence level of teaching staff. The level of competence covered by the programs and continuing training/development activities is evaluated according to:
the teacher's ability to mobilize, combine and use autonomously the knowledge capabilities, the skills and general and professional competences in line with the diverse requirements of a specific context, situation or issue
the teacher's ability to cope with change, complex and unpredictable situations.
Continuous professional development of teachers in preuniversity education is done through a system of institutions, organizations and their structures, between whom there are established hierarchical and functional relationships aimed at ensuring coherence, compatibility and compliance with quality standards in design, execution and evaluation of continuing education programs at national level.
From the point of view of positions and functions by which are empowered the institutions, organizations and structures that comprise it, the national system of continuous teacher training in preuniversity education includes:
institutions and their structures having regulatory, coordination, financing, evaluation, accreditation and monitoring functions for the continuing training programs
institutions, organizations and their structures with organization and accomplishment functions for the continuing training programs and activities, having the status of programs suppliers for continuous teacher training.
The main forms of organization of lifelong training/professional development programs for preuniversity education teaching staff are:
methodological, scientific and psihopedagogical activities, achieved at the educational unit level or by group of units (methodological commissions, departments and pedagogical circles)
methodological and scientific communications sessions, symposiums and exchange of experience on specialty and pedagogical issues
periodic internships for scientific specialty information and in the educational sciences field
courses organized by scientific societies and other professional organizations of teachers
training courses for specialized, methodological and psychopedagogical training
training courses and exams for obtaining the teaching degrees (definitive as a teacher in education, the IInd and the Ist teaching degrees)
training and development courses for management, guidance and control staff, according to specific programs
training scholarships and internships for study and documentation, accomplished in the country or abroad
postgraduate specialization courses
new didactic specializations
The professional conversion programs are in the responsibilities of higher education institutions and take place on the basis of specific methodological norms.
Evaluation and validation of acquisitions achieved by the teaching staff through various programs and forms of organization of lifelong training/professional development programs are carried out through the system of recognition, equalization and accumulation of transferable professional credits.
Career evolution will be evaluated according to the criteria established for the award of the didactic degrees. The evaluation of the continuous training is carried out by:
a) accumulation of transferable professional credits;
b) validation of the competences obtained in the didactic activity included in the annual evaluation sheets of the teaching staff, in the inspection reports and assistance at the time;
c) portfolio scoring.
Development programs and activities referred to above can be organized in flexible forms of education, adapted to the training objectives and contents, as well as to the possibilities and needs of the participants, namely:
through full-time modular courses, during school holidays, in non-working days or working days specifically allocated to training activities
through the system of distance learning, using e-learning platforms and electronic media, combined with orientation and assisted learning through tutoring procedures
through part-time courses organized by institutions of higher education, combined with periodic consultations, according to participants options
through other organizational forms that combines trainers assisted learning (by courses, seminars, laboratories and common practical activities), with learning through individual study and independent activity of the participants.
Methodological, scientific and psychopedagogical activities at the school level are organized and conducted by departments and methodical commissions. Methodological and scientific activities conducted within methodical departments/committees aim objectives and contents that have a direct impact on the educational process conducted in school and they are focused on the main pedagogical approaches, namely: process analysis, design, achievement, evaluation and improvement/development.
The main steps and activities by which departments/methodical committees contribute to the continuous training/ development of the teaching staff consist of:
analysis of the general and specific education needs, of the common and special needs, and setting the priorities based on which the learning process is designed
analysis of the educational resources and formulating the way they will be distributed and used at the concrete level of school and of classes/groups of preschoolers
analysis of the specific social and pedagogical context in which the educational process is carried out
analysis of the classes /groups of preschoolers in terms of learning performance and the determination of initial (prior) conditions from which every stage of the education process starts (at the beginning of a cycle, a school year, a semester, or a new chapter in the curriculum)
operational definition of educational objectives and/or competences targeted through the learning process
the organizing, logical structure and psycho-pedagogical transposition of teaching and learning contents, depending on the particularities of psychological and school age of students and on the particularities of each class /groups of preschoolers
choosing, analysis and evaluation of the teaching strategies, methods, techniques and tools for teaching and learning and applying them to the particularities of the disciplines and of the classes/groups of preschoolers
choosing, construction and validation of methods and instruments of formative and summative assessment of pupils and evaluation of educational outcomes
establishing and applying leverages and means of self-regulation and improvement of the education process based on the results of evaluation at each stage
broadening and deepening of the specialized and pedagogical knowledge and their integration into investigative approaches, assessment and critical analysis of theories, approaches, and principles of education.
The main modalities of organization and conduct the departments/methodical commissions activities are:
the preparation and presentation of reports with specialized, didactical or psychopedagogical content
elaboration, implementation and valorization of research projects carried out individually or in a team
reviews and book presentation
scientific communication sessions
sharing experience, assisting and evaluating lessons
practical activities having a demonstrative or applicative role.
The training activities are included in the work program of the department/methodical commission, prepared annually and updated every six months. In the case of methodical departments/committees formed between groups of schools, the activity program must include successively activities organized, in a balanced manner, in every component of the education units.
Methodological-scientific and pedagogical activities at the local, regional or county level are organized and conducted through the educational circles. They bring together educators, school teachers, foremen instructors, teachers, responsible persons of methodical commissions, headmasters, teachers employed in psycho-pedagogical assistance centers, in Teaching-Staff Resource Centers, in special education, in children's palaces and clubs, etc. from a town, a region, or at the county level.
Pedagogical circles are forums for synthesis, for evaluation of educational outcomes and of factors that determine the effectiveness of the educational process, for communication and valorisation of teaching experiences and of pedagogical research findings conducted by teachers, for constructive criticism and evaluation of teaching and learning methods, for contents and organization of the educational process, for launching of educational projects with impact at regional and county level.
The process of awarding the teaching degrees marks the career evolution of teaching staff according to the new National Qualifications Framework and with occupational standards associated to teaching specializations, as well as in accordance with the new trends regarding human resources development and quality assurance in education.
Obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education degree signifies the recognition of the minimal acceptable competences acquired by a person who chose a teaching career and guarantees, in this way, that the person has the necessary skills needed to practice the teaching profession and can enter on a professional route upward.
Obtaining the IInd teaching degree signifies achieving by a teacher of a further professionalization, confirmed by the results obtained at tests specifically designed to highlight the added value acquired in the period of time passed since he/she obtained the definitive as a teacher degree.
Granting the Ist teaching degree means achieving by a teacher of a high level of professional maturity and expertise, which recommend him/her as a generator of good practice in school environment.
Definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees can be obtained by teaching staff who meets the conditions regarding specialized studies, psycho-pedagogical training, seniority in education and professional performance. The exams for obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees are organized separately for each teaching function. Definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees can be obtained within each teaching function, for the specialization the teacher is teaching, or for one of the specializations written on diplomas he/she hold.
The exam tests for obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education and the IInd and Ist teaching degrees are set on teaching functions established by law, and they are unique at national level and mandatory for all training institutions/centers authorized to organize these exams. The syllabi based on which the tests are conducted are approved by order of the Minister of Education and are available at national level. Teachers enrolled in exams to obtain the teaching degrees can participate in training programs organized by the training centers in order to pass these exams.
Obtaining the definitive as a teacher in education degree
The national exam for definitive as a teacher in education degree is organized by the Ministry of Education, in accordance with a methodology approved by order of the Ministry of Education, and it includes:
- stage I, eliminatory - is done by school inspectorates during the practical training lasting one school year and it consists of an evaluation of the professional activity at school level, an evaluation of the personal and professional portfolio and in sustaining of at least two inspections at class
- stage II, final – is accomplished at the completion of the practical training lasting one school year and it consists of a written exam, based on a topic and a bibliography approved by the Ministry of Education, for each specialty separately.
The written and oral tests of the exam for the definitive as a teacher in education degree assess the theoretical knowledge of the discipline and its didactics, as well as pedagogy and elements of psychology of education.
Teachers who pass the definitive as a teacher exam acquire the degree (title) of teacher having the right to practice in preuniversity education.
Teachers employed with a labour contract for a determined period of time, who passed the exam to obtain the definitive as a teacher in education degree, can be ensured the continuity in the teaching position, by decision of the Administrative Board of the respective school, according to the law.
Those who do not pass the exam for definitive as a teacher in education can be employed in the preuniversity national education system only for a determined period of time, having the status of beginner teacher.
Conferring the IInd teaching degree
The IInd teaching degree can be obtained by teachers having seniority in the education system of at least 4 years since obtaining the definitive as a teacher degree by promoting the following exams:
a special school inspection, preceded by at least two current school inspections spread over the four years
a test at the didactics of the discipline, having interdisciplinary and creative approaches, elaborated based on a topic and a bibliography approved by the Ministry of Education, for each discipline separately
a pedagogy oral test, based on a syllabus approved by the Ministry of Education, which also includes elements of educational psychology and sociology.
In case of failure, the exam for obtaining the IInd teaching degree can be repeated at an interval of at least 2 school years.
Conferring the Ist Teaching Degree
The Ist teaching degree can be obtained by teachers having seniority in the education system of at least 4 years since obtaining the IInd teaching degree, by promoting the following tests:
an admission colloquium based on a topic and a bibliography approved by the Ministry of Education, for each discipline separately
a special school inspection, preceded by at least two current school inspections, spread over the 4 years, all appreciated with the maximum mark
a methodological and scientific paperwork, written under the guidance of a scientific coordinator established by the institution competent in the field
presentation of the methodological and scientific paperwork, to the committee established according to the methodology of the Ministry of Education.
In case of failure, the exam for obtaining the Ist teaching degree, can be repeated at an interval of at least 2 school years.
Incentives, supporting measures and funding for participation in continuing professional development (CPD) activities
Incentives are not given.