Skip to main content
European Commission logo
EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Main types of provision


8.Adult education and training

8.4Main types of provision

Last update: 27 November 2023

Funding lifelong learning (including adult learning) is achieved through public and private funds based on the public-private partnership, through funding and co-financing from employers, non-governmental organizations through grants from European programmes, through lifelong learning accounts and through the contribution of the beneficiaries.

Publicly subsidised provision is focusing on the following target groups:

  • young people and adults who have not completed compulsory education
  • young people who have left education before obtaining a professional qualification and are not enrolled in any form of education or training
  • graduates of non-professional education or those who have graduated high school or higher education qualifications in redundant fields or irrelevant for the labour market
  • adults with special educational needs
  • young people and adults who return after a period of work abroad
  • young people and adults residents in economically and socially disadvantaged communities
  • employees over 40 with low education, residents in urban and rural areas, low skilled or unskilled.

Vocational training courses can be qualification / re-qualification, initiation, improvement or specialization programs.


To be officially recognized, an authorized professional training provider must offer the courses.

Depending on the type of program and the method of professional training, the authorized professional training provider can issue the following types of certificates:

- professional qualification certificate - for qualification or retraining courses and an apprenticeship in the workplace

- certificate of graduation for courses and internships, as well as for courses and internships or specialization courses.

Provision to raise achievement in basic skills

Specifically for the completion of basic education, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research can approve the organisation of “A second chance” educational programmes in order to promote primary education (primary education includes the preparatory grade and the grades 1 - 4) for people who are 4 years older than the age corresponding to a particular grade and who, for various reasons, have not completed this level of education by the age of 14.

Moreover, the Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, collaborating with the authorities of the local public administration, through the School Inspectorates, can organise “A second chance” educational programmes to promote gymnasium education for people who are 4 years older than the age corresponding to a particular grade and who, for various reasons, have not completed secondary gymnasium education (lower secondary education or gymnasium education includes grades 5 – 8).

For people who are more than 3 years older than the age corresponding to a particular grade, compulsory education can be organised also as part-time education, in compliance with a methodology developed by the Ministry of National Education.

These types of programmes are designed for the so-called population at risk: people who have never attended school, young people who dropped out school or people who completed primary education, but are not capable of reading or doing basic arithmetics at  satisfactory level.

Provision to achieve a recognised qualification during adulthood certification

Publicly subsidised provision to achieve recognised qualifications is offered within the lower secondary level of the Second Chance Programme.

Project based programmes  (i.e. financed from the ESF fund – Human Capital Programme) are also available to support and encourage adults to re-train and upgrade their skills.

The nomenclature of qualifications for which programs completed with qualification certificates can be organized was approved by Order of the Minister of Labor, Social Solidarity, and Family and of the Minister of Education, Research and Youth no. 35/3112/2004. The updating and revision of this nomenclature are performed periodically, at the users' request, by the Ministry of Labor, Family, and Social Protection, the Directorate of Employment and Payroll.

Provision targeting the transition to the labour market

People who are looking for a job can participate in training programmes  organised by the National Employment Agency through its subordinated training centres and its regional centres for adult training, as well as in  training programmes organized by  providers in the public or private sector, authorized under the law.

The unemployed have the obligation to participate in the training programmes recommended by the County Employment Agency where they are registered, otherwise their unemployment benefit is withdrawn.

Training for the unemployed is funded from the unemployment insurance budget and it is organised by the National Agency for Employment, being partially delivered through its own centres. In-service training for this target group is specifically governed by the Law 76/2002 on the unemployment insurance system and the stimulation of employment, with its subsequent changes and completions.


The services that precede dismissal and that must be provided by the employers include, among others, the facilitation of employees’ participation in short-time training programmes.

Some categories of people, employed or unemployed, benefit from free training and other facilities.

The employers must take all necessary measures to ensure their employees’ access to training programmes.


The rights and obligations of employers and employees for the period when the employees participate in training programmes are stipulated in the collective and/or individual work contracts.

For the purpose of the training of their employees, the employers must consult the representatives of the unions or of the employees in order to develop training plans in compliance with the development programmes and the sector and territorial strategies.


Provision of liberal (popular) adult education

No systematic provision of liberal (popular) adult education. Only project based funding is available for this type of provision, or organizing fee-based courses

Other types of publicly subsidised provision for adult learners

No additional types of publicly subsisted provision available.