Adult training provision is large and diverse, since it includes from literacy processes and the achievement of basic education to training aimed at professional training and qualification linked to active employment policies and on-the-job training or leisure activities. It comprises different types of provision and programmes, which are offered by the education, employment and local authorities.
Provision to raise achievement in basic skills
Provision aimed at improving the achievements of the adult population in basic skills as well as their linguistic competence in foreign languages is mainly offered by the educational authorities, although there are also training activities with the same objectives in the field of popular education, such as popular universities.
Basic education for adults
Basic education for adults is aimed at young people and adults who left the education system without any qualification, and focuses on the acquisition of basic education skills and knowledge.
All the Autonomous Communities differentiate between initial education and secondary education for adults.
Initial education is aimed at people who do not master basic instrumental techniques.
These studies are open to the following people:
- people turning 18 in the year in which the course begins;
- exceptionally, people over 16 years of age, who request it and have an employment contract that does not allow them to attend ordinary schools or who are high-performance athletes; people over 16 years of age who, exceptionally, have been authorised by the education authorities, either because of circumstances that prevent them from attending ordinary schools and which are duly accredited and regulated, or because they have not been enrolled in the Spanish education system.
In most Autonomous Communities, initial education is structured into two levels:
- Level 1 or Literacy, which enables adults to acquire literacy and numeracy skills;
- Level 2 or Consolidation of Knowledge and Instrumental Techniques, which provides access to secondary education for adults and fosters their active participation in social, cultural, political and economic.
The contents taught are normally organised in fields (Scientific-Technological, Communication and Social) or knowledge areas (Language, Mathematics and Social and Natural Sciences), although in some Autonomous Communities the contents of Level 1 are organised comprehensively. They may also introduce adults to foreign languages. In addition to the time devoted to curricular contents, all education authorities include a number of hours for guidance and tutorials for aspects related to training and employment integration.
It normally consists of provision requiring attendance, although some Autonomous Communities offer distance learning. As a general rule, each level corresponds to an academic year, its duration is characterised by flexibility and may vary according to the needs and learning pace of the students.
It is personalised, integrative and takes into account the characteristics. Its continuous and educational character is reflected in the adoption of reinforcement or educational support measures and, where appropriate, curricular adaptation, if the progress of the student is not adequate.
Students who successfully complete initial education receive a certificate. If the levels are not passed, the Autonomous Communities establish the possibility of obtaining a certificate in which the work done is specified.
Secondary education for adults
Secondary education for adults is intended to help them obtain the Lower Compulsory Secondary Education Certificate. It also seeks to facilitate the acquisition of the basic skills that are necessary to foster their personal development and promote their social integration, continuation of their studies and their integration into the labour market or promotion.
These studies are open to the following people:
- people turning 18 in the year in which the course begins;
- exceptionally, people over 16 years old, who request it and have an employment contract that does not allow them to attend ordinary schools or who are high-performance athletes. In addition, they have to meet any of the following requirements:
- having completed the 6th year of primary education or its equivalent;
- having passed Level 2 or Consolidation of Knowledge and Instrumental Techniques of initial education, or having achieved the objectives of these levels in the initial assessment.
This provision is organised into three areas:
- Communication (basic aspects of the curriculum for compulsory secondary education relating to the subjects of Spanish Language and Literature, the first foreign language, and, if applicable, the relevant co-official language and its literature);
- Social (including aspects relating to Geography and History, Civic and Ethical Values, the aspects of perception included in the curriculum of Plastic, Visual and Audiovisual Education, and Music);
- Scientific-Technological (including Mathematics, Technology, Digitalisation, Physics and Chemistry, Biology and Geology and the aspects related to health and the natural environment included in the Physical Education curriculum);
The education authorities may introduce other aspects relating to the remaining subjects of compulsory secondary education. These areas are normally organised into two levels comprising a series of modules, although some Autonomous Communities organise levels into sections.
In most Autonomous Communities, this type of provision is organised in such a way that it can be completed in two academic years. However, the modular system provides greater flexibility of access and choice of the learning pace, and offers the possibility of taking the modules. In order to help adults combine their personal, family and working life with study, provision can be classroom-based or distance and, in the case of some Autonomous Communities, partially distance.
It is considered as a continuous process. In most Autonomous Communities, it is differentiated according to modules or areas, although attention is paid to its global character as well as to its comprehensive approach to knowledge. It is important that it is personalised, integrative and that it takes into account the characteristics of.
The completion of any of the levels corresponding to each of the three areas in which these courses are organised is valid throughout the country.
Passing all the areas will entitle the holder to the award of the Compulsory Secondary Education Graduate Certificate. Likewise, the teaching team may recommend the award of the diploma of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education to those pupils who, although they have not passed any of the areas, are considered to have achieved the general objectives of adult basic education as a whole. This decision will take into account the training and integration possibilities of each student in academic and work activities".
The education authorities organise examinations on a regular basis so that people over 18 can obtain this certificate directly, without having taken the relevant courses previously, provided that they have attained the basic competences and objectives required for the stage. These examinations are organised on the basis of the three mentioned knowledge areas and it is up to the Administrations themselves to determine which parts of these examinations are considered to have been passed by those who sit them, in accordance with their previous academic record. The examinations are based on the three knowledge areas into which this type of provision is organised. It is also the responsibility of the education authorities to ensure that the necessary measures are adopted to ensure equal opportunities, non-discrimination on grounds of birth, sex, racial or ethnic origin, disability, age, illness, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation or gender identity or any other personal or social condition or circumstance, as well as universal accessibility for people with disabilities who take said examinations.
Vocational secondary education for adults
According to Organic Law 2/2006 on Education (LOE) as amended by Organic Law 3/2020 (LOMLOE), educational authorities may establish basic level training cycles for those who have reached the age of 18 in the year in which the course begins.
Vocational Training allows the acquisition of professional, social, personal and longlife learning skills.
Students aged over 17 who do not hold a vocational training certificate or any other certificate proving completion of full secondary education mayenrol in this type of provision.
Basic vocational training cycles involve two years of full-time study. They are classroom-based and take place in adult education institutions.
Students who successfully complete a basic vocational training cycle are awarded the Basic Vocational Training Certificate. In addition, those aged over 22 who have accredited the relevant basic vocational training professional competences, through either Level 1 certificates of professional experience or the established evaluation and accreditation procedure, are also awarded the Basic Vocational Training Certificate by the education. The education authorities periodically organise examinations to obtain this certificate. In order to sit them, candidates must be at least 18. In addition, the education authorities have to ensure equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for people with disabilities who sit these examinations.
Language education is organised into three levels: basic, intermediate and advanced. These levels correspond, respectively, to levels A, B and C of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (MCER). Language teaching at intermediate and advanced levels mentioned in the previous article, are provided in official language schools.
People aged at least 16 and, exceptionally, those aged at least 14 can join these courses when it is a language other than the one studied in Compulsory Secondary Education.
This provision can be classroom-based or distance, through the programme That's English!.
Students who successfully complete the different levels of language education are awarded the relevant certificate. In addition, the education authorities, through Official Language Schools, regularly organise tests for adults who wish to obtain a language certificate without completing the corresponding course. These tests are organised in accordance with the objectives, skills and evaluation criteria established for each level in the curricula of the different languages.
Provision to achieve a recognised qualification during adulthood certification
The education authorities offer training for adults, thus allowing them to achieve an official qualification that proves the development and consolidation of basic skills, the consolidation of those skills of a more cross-cutting nature that encourage continuing learning and their labour integration into a specific field, or the acquisition of professional competences.
In addition, the education authorities organise examinations for adults to obtain these qualifications without having to complete the corresponding studies, as well as examinations for adults to have access to these types of provision.
Post-compulsory and higher education
There is also the possibility for adults to have access to Bachillerato and vocational training. The education authorities take the necessary steps to ensure the provision of post-compulsory education for adults and organise public distance education, which must include the use of information and communication technologies.
Bachillerato for adults has been regulated in all Autonomous Communities, either by means of specific legislation or legislation that applies to mainstream Bachillerato.
These studies are open to the following people:
- people turning 18 in the year in which the course begins;
- people over 16 years old, who request it and have an employment contract that does not allow them to attend ordinary schools or who are high-performance athletes;
- people over the age of 16 who have been authorised by the education authorities, either because of circumstances that prevent them from attending ordinary schools and which are duly accredited and regulated, or because they have not been enrolled in the Spanish education system.
In addition, it is required to be in possession of the Compulsory Secondary Education Graduate certificate or any of the vocational training, plastic arts and design or Sports Education certificates or equivalent.
Within the face-to-face modality, two organisational models can be distinguished, although not all Autonomous Communities have both:
- Model A, in which the subjects for each branch are distributed and grouped in three blocks, each of which is taught within an academic year;
- Model B, whose organisation is the same as the one established for mainstream Bachillerato provision.
The Autonomous Communities set, within their area of management, the maximum number of teaching hours per week, the number of weekly hours devoted to each subject and the teaching timetable, which varies depending on the organisational. Students can take any number of subjects from the first and second year, according to their possibilities and time availability, and respecting the rules of precedence and incompatibility between.
In the case of classroom-based provision, schedules which facilitate greater student attendance can be offered.
The organisation of distance Bachillerato is the same as the one established for mainstream provision: two academic.
In these programmes, tutorial support is optional and can be classroom-based or distance.
Assessment is continuous and differentiated for each subject.
Distance provision takes into account the submission and appropriateness of tasks, participation in the proposed thematic forums, if applicable, as well as any other element included in the teaching. Additionally, both in classroom-based and distance provision, students are required to pass classroom examinations. As a general rule, three quarterly written examinations and two final examinations are established for each subject: an ordinary examination session at the end of the third quarter, normally in June, and a supplementary examination session, generally in Septembe.
Bachillerato for adults has the same academic validity as mainstream Bachillerato and therefore leads to the award of the Bachillerato certificate.
Students will obtain the diploma provided that they have obtained a positive evaluation in all the subjects of the two Bachillerato courses, or in all subjects except one. In the latter case, the following conditions must be met:
- That the teaching team considers that the student has achieved the objectives and skills associated with this qualification.
- That the student has not dropped out of the subject, in accordance with the criteria established by the schools within the framework of the provisions established by the education authorities.
- That the student has taken the tests and carried out the activities required for their assessment, including those of the extraordinary call.
- That the arithmetic average of the grades obtained in all the subjects of the stage is equal to or higher than five.
Likewise, students taking these courses who are in possession of any of the qualifications referred to in Article 23 of Royal Decree 243/2022 may obtain the Bachillerato diploma by means of the procedure set out in said Article.
Vocational training allows students to receive training and work or carry out other activities at the same time. This is why it is offered on a full-time, part-time or modular basis.
These studies are open to the following people:
- access to part-time provision of the training modules is governed by the academic and age requirements established generally;
- in order to have access to intermediate vocational training, students must hold the Lower Compulsory Secondary Education Certificate or its equivalent, have completed an Initial Vocational Qualification Programme, or hold a basic vocational training certificate;
- those who do not comply with these conditions may sit an entrance examination regulated by the education authorities;
- in order to have access to advanced vocational training cycles, students have to meet one of the following requirements:
- hold a Bachillerato certificate;
- hold a Technician certificate and have completed a specific training course at an authorised public or private institution;
- have passed the entrance examination for advanced vocational training cycles;
- have passed the university entrance examination for students over 25.
On the other hand, the specialisation courses are aimed at people who already hold a vocational training qualification. In order to enrol in them, students must be in possession of one of the Technician or Advanced Technician qualifications specified as an entry requirement in the Royal Decree setting up each of them.
In full-time provision, all the modules of a course have to be taken. In part-time provision, modules can be taken independently. In both cases, as well as in those vocational modules where it is possible, provision can be classroom-based, partially distance or distance.
The teaching methods include the scientific, technological and organisational aspects that are necessary to gain a global vision of the relevant professional activity. They are flexible and open, and based on self-learning. Distance provision facilitates students’ autonomy through the use of information and communication. Teachers have a personal relationship with students and are in permanent contact with them. Likewise, students have the support of a tutor who offers guidance and advice.
Assessment is undertaken through modules, taking into account the objectives and evaluation criteria of the vocational modules, as well as the general objectives of the training cycle. In distance provision, in the final assessment of the vocational modules, which is completed by continuous assessment processes, students are required to pass classroom examinations. The Autonomous Communities are responsible for defining the assessment criteria.
Vocational training for adults has the same academic validity as mainstream vocational training, so students who successfully complete this type of provision are awarded the Technician or Advanced Technician certificate in the relevant. The students who do not pass all the studies contained in the training cycle obtain an academic certificate specifying the competence units of the passed vocational modules, which includes accumulated partial accreditation of the professional competences acquired, in line with the National System for Qualifications and Vocational Training (SNCFP).
There are not specific programmes for adults. However, part-time provision, for which the number of credits varies across universities, enables them to take university education studies.
In addition, they can study for a university degree programme by distance learning. In the case of public universities, this is mainly offered by the National University of Distance Education (UNED), although the rest of universities may also offer distance Bachelor and Master’s degree programmes.
Entrance examinations, tests to obtain a certificate and examinations to achieve a qualification
The education authorities periodically organise different types of examinations for adults to have access to studies leading to the award of a qualification, obtaining a language certificate or achieving a post-compulsory official qualification. These examinations have been established for candidates who do not meet the academic requirements. A minimum age is required in order to sit them. The entrance examinations for studies leading to a qualification are as follows:
- entrance examinations for intermediate vocational training cycles: candidates must be or turn 17 in the year the examination is taken. These examinations accredit the competences of compulsory secondary education, and are considered sufficient knowledge and skills to have access to intermediate vocational training;
- entrance examinations for advanced vocational training cycles: candidates must be at least 19 in the year the examination is taken, or 18 if they hold a Technician certificate related to the training cycle they want to take. The examination proves that candidates have the necessary maturity in relation to the objectives of Bachillerato, as well as the skills regarding the professional field concerned. The education authorities may organise and offer courses for those holding the Technician certificate to prepare these examinations;
- entrance examinations for advanced artistic education: students over 19 may sit this examination, which proves that candidates have the necessary maturity in relation to the objectives of Bachillerato, as well as the knowledge, skills and abilities to successfully complete this type of provision;
- entrance examinations for university education: the regulations on the admission requirements for official Bachelor programmes have established three types of access, according to age criteria and work experience:
- an entrance examination for people over 25;
- access through the accreditation of professional or work experience for those over 40;
- an entrance examination for people over 45 who lack qualifications and professional and work experience
- Universities have to reserve a number of places, not lower than 2 %, for those students who have passed the university entrance examination for people over 25. In the case of students who have passed the entrance examination for people over 45 or those who accredit professional or work experience, universities must reserve, as a whole, a number of places not lower than 1 % or higher than 3 %. For detailed information on these three types of university entrance examinations and access for students over 25, 40 and 45, see section Bachelor.
Finally, examinations for adults to obtain an official qualification without having to complete the corresponding studies are also organised. These examinations correspond to compulsory secondary education, Bachillerato and basic, intermediate and advanced vocational training or languages taught in official language schools. They are the following:
- for detailed information on the examinations to obtain the Lower Compulsory Secondary Education Certificate and a basic vocational training certificate, see section Provision to raise achievement in basic skills;
- examinations to obtain the Bachillerato certificate: adults may obtain the Bachillerato certificate by sitting these examinations provided they have achieved the general objectives established for this type of provision. The examinations are organised differently according to the Bachillerato branches. In order to sit them, students must be 20 years of age. In addition, the Education Authorities have to ensure equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for people with disabilities who sit these;
- examinations to obtain intermediate and advanced vocational training certificates: in order to sit these examinations, students must be 18 for the Technician certificate, 20 for the Advanced Technician certificate, or 19 if the hold the Technician certificate. Students in either classroom-based or distance part-time provision who have taken vocational modules associated with competence units, may sit these examinations in order to retake the vocational modules that they have not passed. In addition, the Education Authorities have to ensure equal opportunities, non-discrimination and universal accessibility for people with disabilities who sit.
- examinations to obtain a language certificate. The education authorities, through Official Language Schools, regularly organise these tests for students that have not completed the corresponding course. These tests are organised in accordance with the objectives, skills and evaluation criteria established for each level in the curricula of the different languages.
Programmes for education and vocational training linked to active employment policies and on-the-job training
The employment authorities organise a wide range of training actions aimed at the unemployed with the aim of improving their employability and facilitating their integration into the labour market. Following the latest ministerial reorganisation in January 2020, competences in the area of Vocational Training for Employment have been transferred to the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MEFP). Until the appropriate measures are adopted to carry out the necessary changes for this reorganisation, those bodies or units of the Ministry of Employment and Social Economy (MITES) or its public bodies, with powers assigned in the area of vocational training for employment which are transferred to the MEFP, carry out these functions under the functional dependence of the General Secretariat for Vocational Training.
In turn, Organic Law 3/2022 on the organisation and integration of Vocational Training (LOOIFP) regulates a single vocational training system, without to the MITES' powers in terms of training and job training linked to active employment policies and on-the-job training. However, until the regulatory development of said law is implemented, the employment authorities maintain their previous work in coordination with the MEFP.
The provision aimed at the transition to the labour market is integrated into the Vocational Training for Employment system, which also includes other actions aimed primarily at employed workers. Unemployed people can also take part in some of these actions.
The Training for Employment System has the following characteristics:
- its mission is to train and qualify people for work and to upgrade their skills and knowledge throughout their professional career;
- consists of a set of training actions that enable the qualified performance of various professions, access to employment and active participation in social, cultural and economic life;
- includes courses in initial vocational training, actions to integrate and reintegrate workers into the labour market, as well as those aimed at continuous in-company training, which will allow skills to be acquired and constantly updated;
- falls within the scope of measures for integration and reintegration into the labour market, as well as continuous training for workers.
Its objective is organising the various training initiatives that constitute the vocational training subsystem for employment in the workplace, as well as its organisational structure, the control of training and the sanctioning system, an integrated information, evaluation and quality system and institutional participation.
There are 3 types of vocational training for employment aimed at providing an immediate response to the different needs of individuals and the production system:
- training planned by companies for their employees;
- training provision for employed workers offered by the relevant administrations, consisting of sectoral training programmes and cross-cutting training programmes, as well as professional qualification and recognition programmes;
- training provision for unemployed workers offered by the relevant administrations, including training programmes aimed at meeting the needs identified by the public employment services, specific training programmes and training programmes with recruitment agreements.
There are three possibilities for the delivery of the training Delivery of the training:
- through e-learning, using platforms and content accessible to people with disabilities;
- mix methods, through the combination of the two previous approaches.
General characteristics of vocational training for employment
Vocational training for employment is aimed at employed and unemployed workers. Priority is given to people having greater difficulties for inclusion and remaining in the labour market, such as the long-term unemployed, women, people over 45, low-skilled workers, migrants and people with disabilities, among others.
Training actions are structured into several training modules with their own objectives, contents and duration:
- training not linked to the award of certificates of professional experience: the duration of each training action or module depends on the purpose, the target group, the delivery mode, the number of participants and other objective criteria, but shall not be less than six teaching hours;
- cross-sectoral training in areas which are considered a priority by the relevant authority: in total, the participation of a worker in training actions shall not exceed eight hours per day. In the case of students participating in workshop-schools, trade training centres or employment workshops who have not achieved the objectives of compulsory secondary education, specific programmes in order to provide them with basic and professional training which enables them to participate in working life or continue their studies are organised.
Provision can be classroom-based, e-learning or mixed, organised by the following bodies:
- companies developing training actions for their own employees, as well as for unemployed workers, either through a training action with recruitment commitment or other agreements with public employment services;
- relevant public authorities in the field of vocational training for employment, either through their own institutions (public national reference institutions or integrated vocational training institutions) or agreements with authorised public bodies or companies;
- public or private training bodies, authorised and/or registered in the relevant.
Classroom-based training is organised in groups of a maximum of 25 participants when the training is linked to certificates of professional experience; otherwise this limit is extended to 30 participants; However, in distance provision, either traditional or e-learning, there is, at least, one tutor for every 80 participants. The employment authorities may establish, within their area of management, a smaller number of participants.
The Vocational Training for Employment System must be subject to a continuous evaluation process that enables to determine the impact of the training actions developed, also in terms of labour market integration and career progression. The bodies in charge of the management, programming and control are responsible for carrying out a continuous evaluation within their own territory, including the following aspects:
- a previous study justifying the need for the different training actions according to the labour market needs;
- the establishment of previous, specific and quantifiable objectives, accompanied by transparent monitoring indicators;
- the measurement of the impact of actions, in terms of the integration on unemployed workers into the labour market, or improved job performance or promotion opportunities in the case of employed workers;
- a user satisfaction evaluation;
- a systematic analysis of the recommendations and conclusions resulting from the evaluation, so that they can translate into improvements in the system;
- assessment, which is systematic and continuous, is through modules and, where appropriate, training units, in order to establish the learning outcomes and the acquisition of professional competences;
- it is carried out by trainers, who take the skills and evaluation criteria set for each training module as a reference;
- trainers draw up an evaluation report which includes the results obtained by each participant and indicate whether they have acquired the skills of the training modules and, therefore, the professional competence of the competence units they are linked to.
A Labour Inspection Unit specialised in training is to be set up and changes are to be made in punitive regulations, including the exclusion of offenders from the system for 5 years.
For the accreditation of the competence units the participant must obtain a Pass grade in the evaluation of the training modules linked to each of the competence units.
As for the certificates of professional experience, they are issued on successful completion of the training modules corresponding to the competence units into which they are structured. In exceptional circumstances, and when the professional profile so requires, the certificate of professional experience may include less units than the ones defined in the reference vocational qualification of the National Catalogue of Vocational Qualifications (CNCP). In any case, the competence unit is the minimum unit that can be accredited in order to obtain a certificate of professional experience.
Regarding the training not linked to certificates of, participants completing the training action are awarded a certificate of attendance and those being positively evaluated receive a diploma. The skills acquired through this training can be fully or partly recognised through certificates of professional experience, depending on the procedure and requirements for the evaluation and accreditation of skills acquired through work experience or non-formal training.
The State Public Employment Service (SEPE) and regional employment services are responsible for issuing the certificates of professional experience and partial accreditations. The certificates of professional experience issued by such bodies are official and valid throughout the country.
Training offer of vocational training for employment
The actions and initiatives within vocational training for employment aimed primarily at the unemployed are the following:
It consists of training plans or programmes aimed at:
- employed people;
- people with special training needs or experiencing difficulties entering the labour market;
- people who are deprived of their freedom;
- military personnel whose employment relationship with the Armed Forces is temporary;
- unemployed people and migrant workers.
These training actions aimed at the unemployed include:
- Training actions with recruitment commitment: the management of this initiative is provided at the State and regional levels, by subsidising training actions with recruitment commitment by the subsidised body of, at least, 60 % of the trainees.
- Training plans primarily aimed at the unemployed: the employment authorities, both State and regional, draw up these plans taking into account existing employment opportunities in the labour market as well as the training needs of the unemployed. The State Public Employment Service (SEPE) and the employment services of the Autonomous Communities are the bodies in charge of drawing up, managing and evaluating such plans.
- Training programmes for specific groups: the State Public Employment Service and the employment services of the Autonomous Communities may draw up programmes aimed at improving the employability of people with special needs or who have difficulties finding a job.
- Placements in companies: they are aimed at unemployed young people aged 18-25 who are professionally qualified in the education or the employment field, but have limited or no work experience. They may last between three and nine months and are delivered in the workplace and under the guidance and supervision of a tutor. Participants receive a grant from the company or business groups where they complete their placement equivalent to, at least, 80 % of the monthly public revenue index (IPREM) in effect at the time.
Training aimed at the acquisition of professional competences through a mixed process of employment and training which combines formal learning with professional practice.
These training actions include training and learning contracts, and workshop-schools, trade training centres and employment workshops.
Training and learning contracts
The training and learning contract was developed in November 2012, a measure that was adopted in the labour reform approved in February of the same year.
Its aim is to professionally qualify people through work-linked training schemes which combine work with training. In the case of companies hiring unemployed people, the employer’s Social Security contributions are reduced.
The training aspects of this kind of contracts mean that the professional activity developed by the worker must be related to the training activity.
The professional qualification is accredited through the following documents:
- intermediate or advanced Vocational Training certificates;
- Certificates of professional experience (level 1, 2 and 3 of qualification).
Regarding the labour aspects, the following characteristics should be highlighted:
- workers' requirements:
- those not having a professional qualification for a training contract;
- those aged over 16 and under 25 (and those aged under 30 until the unemployment rate drops below 15 %);
- the maximum age limit does not apply in the case of disabled or socially excluded people in insertion companies and students of workshop-schools, trade training centres and employment and training programmes
- the actual working time must be compatible with the time devoted to training activities:
- which shall not exceed 75 % during the first year;
- nor 85 % during the second and third years, of the maximum working day established;
- these contracts cannot be part-time.
- duration of the contract:
- 1 year minimum;
- 3 years maximum;
- collective agreements may establish a different duration which may not be shorter than 6 months or longer than 3 years;
- in the case of people with disabilities, they may apply for an extension of the maximum duration;
- if the maximum duration of the contract is shorter than 3 years, it can be extended twice. However, each extension may not be shorter than 6 months and the total duration of the contract cannot exceed 3 years;
- they will be automatically renewed as employment contracts for an indefinite period if the person continues providing his/her services once their maximum duration has been reached.
- the number of contracts per worker and the maximum number of contracts per company are not limited. In fact, the company may request a certification of the worker’s previous contracts, as well as the work carried out or the professional qualification related to each contract, from the relevant public employment service.
- the company may take into account, for the purpose of calculating, the periods during which the person concerned was employed under training contracts.
- the complementary training linked to these contracts must correspond to one or several of the training specialisations included in the Training Specialisations File and, therefore, meet the requirements of the training programmes developed by SEPE.
- institutions or companies providing complementary training must be registered, in the corresponding specialisation, in the Training Institutions and Organisations Registry.
The training activity of the training and learning contract is considered as dual vocational training, whose foundations were regulated in early November 2012 and in December 2013. The characteristics of this training activity are the following:
- The company, which provides the worker with an actual job related to the professional profile of the vocational training qualification or the certificate of professional experience. It also verifies that there is a training activity related to that job which corresponds to a vocational training qualification or a certificate of professional experience. Additionally, the company ensures he/she attends the training programmes established for the training activity
- The owner of the company or a designated person is responsible for monitoring the agreement for the training activity, coordinating the work activity with the training activity and communicating with the educational institution. On completion of the activity, he/she produces a report on the work carried out.
- The worker must meet the access requirements established in order to receive the training.
The worker is exempt from the practical training module included in the certificates of professional experience or the work placement module of vocational training qualifications. The duration of the contract and subsequent extensions is taken into account in both cases.
The training institution appoints a tutor who is responsible for the planning and monitoring of the training, the coordination of the evaluation and communication with the company for the development of the training and employment activity. The company also appoints a tutor, who is responsible for the following functions:
- communicate with the training institution through the tutor in the institution;
- coordinate, together with the tutor in the training institution, the development of the training programme corresponding to the training activity of the contract, which determines the learning outcomes of the action and the evaluation criteria;
- monitor the agreement for the training activity, in order to assess the development of the programme and establish the necessary training support;
- collaborate with the tutor in the training institution in the evaluation of the learning developed both during and at the end of the contract;
- ensure that the worker complies with the relevant health and safety at work protocols associated with the different workplaces and learning;
- produce, on completion of the activity, a report on the work carried out by the worker and the learning results achieved in the company.
Participating companies sign an agreement with both the training institution and the worker, which is annexed to his/her contract. The people responsible for the training, the training needs of the company and the worker, as well as the characteristics and contents of the training are specified in the agreement.
It is the responsibility of public employment services, in collaboration with the education authorities, to provide information and guidance to companies and workers on employment and training possibilities, as well as on the match between the characteristics of the job offered by the company and the training institutions that are available to provide the relevant training.
The training activity of this contract has to be previously authorised by the relevant public employment service, which is in charge of its monitoring and evaluation:
- If the company signs contracts in more than one Autonomous Community, the authorisation and evaluation of the activity is the responsibility of the State Public Employment Service.
- the authorisation is communicated by the public employment services of the Autonomous Communities to the State Public Employment Service in order to control the application of the corresponding bonuses.
The activity takes place within the framework of vocational training for employment or vocational training of the education system, in any of its forms:
- In the case of vocational training of the education system, it will be provided by institutions designated by the relevant education authority and communicated to the public employment service.
- As for vocational training for employment, by accredited institutions.
- Training can also be provided by the company if it has the facilities and adequately trained staff so that the professional competence or qualification can be accredited, without prejudice to the periods of additional training undertaken by the worker at the designated institutions. In this case, the company must be authorised to provide such training and training contents must be validated by the State Public Employment Service.
The training activity must respect the duration of the related training established for the different vocational modules comprised in vocational training qualifications or the certificates of professional experience. In any case, training takes place during the contract period.
Training activities may include additional training which is not related to the National Catalogue of Vocational Qualifications in order to adapt to the needs of both workers and companies.
Workshop-schools, Trade training centres and Employment workshops
They are employment and training programmes where unemployed people receive training combined with work (a real project or service), in order to provide them with a professional qualification which facilitates their access to the world of work. In employment workshops, when selecting candidates, preference is given to those aged over 45.
Other types of publicly subsidised provision for adult learners
This section describes the training actions included in the vocational training for employment programme that are aimed primarily at employed workers.
This training provision is organised by the competent administrations and is divided into three types of training: demand training, supply training and training actions for officials of the public administrations.
This training responds to the specific training needs expressed by companies or their employees and comprises two types of actions:
- On-the-job training actions: they are training actions planned and implemented by companies for their employees;
- Individual training leaves: workers may request an authorisation to undertake officially accredited training actions.
Although this type of provision is aimed primarily at the employees of the organising company, unemployed people may also participate, provided they are employed under fixed-discontinuous contracts but not employed at that time, they become unemployed during the training activity, or their contracts have been temporarily suspended.
This training provision consists of training plans or programmes aimed at employed workers, people with special training needs or experiencing difficulties entering the labour market, people who are deprived of their freedom, military personnel whose employment relationship with the Armed Forces is temporary, the unemployed and migrant workers.
The aim of the training provision for employed workers is to provide them with training that addresses the companies’ requirements for productivity and competitiveness, meets the needs of adaptation to changes in the productive system, and provides them with career development opportunities and possibilities of personal development, so that they become qualified to exercise the different professions and improve their employability.
There are two types of training plans primarily aimed at employed workers:
- cross-sectoral plans, which are focused on the acquisition of transversal skills from various sectors of the economic activity, or the learning of the specific skills of a sector;
- sectoral plans, which are aimed at the training of workers from a specific productive sector..
Training actions for public officials of the public administrations
These actions are managed by the National Institute for Public Administration (INAP) and address issues such as managerial skills, public management skills, information and communication technologies and foreign and co-official languages, among others.
Vocational information and guidance
The purpose of vocational information and guidance was formulated in 2002:
- inform about opportunities for access to employment, and possibilities regarding the acquisition, evaluation and accreditation of professional competences and qualifications, and how to make further progress in them throughout life;
- provide information and advice on the different training options and possible training pathways in order to facilitate integration and reintegration into the labour market, as well as professional mobility.
Since then, the education and employment authorities, the local administration and social agents participate in the organisation of the services, with the State General Administration responsible for the cooperation and coordination between all the entities involved. They have to:
- offer information to students, families, unemployed and employed workers and society at large;
- make available to social partners information on the system which can serve as a reference in collective bargaining, without prejudice to the autonomy of the parties.
This is why special attention is paid to the improvement of access to information and guidance services for students at this stage who are about to choose their pathway.
Among all the actions detailed, it is worth highlighting the creation of the Employment and Self-Employment Portal EMPLÉATE which includes information on the main sources of employment for young people who are currently studying, helping them to choose one or other training itinerary. Additionally, they can benefit from a personalised and updatable digital record containing all the information needed to facilitate their entry into the labour market, as well as from a virtual assistant helping them to determine and optimise their employability. This Single Portal hosts all useful information to guide young people and provide them with all the necessary tools to facilitate their job search or the start of a business activity, in coordination with the One-Stop Company Shop (VUE):
- this One-Stop Company Shop is a pilot project of the Chambers of Commerce, with the support of the European Social Fund and the General State Administration;
- its aim is to universalise the advisory work for the creation of companies and support to entrepreneurs provided by the network of VUE offices;
- an online open and free advisory service from which anyone with an entrepreneurial project or with a company active in Spain can benefit, without any restriction on the number of consultations, is offered.
Common Employment Services Portfolio of the National Employment System
As part of the 2020 Strategy of European Public Employment Services, the Common Employment Services Portfolio of the National Employment System in Spain aims to ensure equal access across the State to public employment services and the services they provide, as well as equal access to employment.
Users of the services include:
- unemployed or employed people who, depending on their needs, can be job seekers and services applicants, or just services applicants, who are also entitled to receive these services through a personalised attention adapted to their expectations and needs;
- companies, which, depending on their needs, can be employers or services applicants.
Services related to training:
- Career guidance:
- Information, diagnosis of the individual situation, advice, motivation and career transition support, either from education to employment or between the different employment and unemployment situations throughout working.
- Support for users to improve their employability, enhance their career development and facilitate their recruitment or advise on self-employment. Based on a diagnosis of their needs, guidance may lead to the provision of other specialised services..
- individual diagnosis and development of the profile;
- design of the personalised employment path;
- personalised support in the development of the path and regarding compliance with the obligations of their commitment;
- advice and technical support for:
- 1st definition of their CV;
- 2nd implementation of techniques for an active job-seeking..
- additional information and advice;
- support in the management of labour mobility..
- Training and employment skills:
- It promotes training, professional qualification, requalification and the constant updating of professional.
- It improves users’ professional competences through creditable training provision and non-formal training, as well as the recognition of competences acquired through work experience.
- vocational training for employment that meets users’ needs;
- control, monitoring and evaluation of the quality of Public Employment Services training and quality assurance systems;
- evaluation, recognition and accreditation of professional competences acquired through work experience;
- maintenance and updating of the training account: it includes workers’ training record and its reflection in the training account associated to the Social Security number;
- registration, accreditation and selection of vocational training for employment institutions and organisations;
- management of European instruments to encourage mobility in vocational training and qualification
- Advice for self-employment and entrepreneurship:
- It supports and promotes entrepreneurial initiatives and employment and self-employment generation initiatives, linking them to the users that are best suited to them according to their profile and skills, with particular regard to self-employment, social economy and the promotion of local economic development.
- information and qualified support actions for users who are interested in promoting their own employment or in undertaking a productive activity which involves the creation of jobs;
- dissemination, promotion and support to the establishment of cooperatives, worker-owned companies and other social economy organisations;
- qualified information and support to process existing aid for entrepreneurship, self-employment and social economy, as well as incentives and ways of encouraging recruitment from which entrepreneurs can benefit.