There are two types of programmes in Montenegro: educational programmes (formal education programmes) and programmes of education (non-formal education programmes). These programmes are focused both on acquiring qualifications and on acquiring professional knowledge and key skills.
Measures for increasing basic skills achievements
Elementary functional literacy/primary school: The Law on Primary Education prescribes that primary education of students older than 15 is carried out in accordance with regulations that govern the field of adult education.
Primary education of adults in Montenegro is carried out according to:
- the programme of elementary functional literacy (1-3 grades of primary school) and
- the adapted primary school programme for adults (4-9 grades of primary school).
Programmes have been adapted to adults in terms of duration of education, the mandatory method of testing and knowledge assessment, enrolment requirements, conditions for promotion and completion of education, as well as in terms of professional development of teachers.
Besides language and mathematics literacy, the programme of elementary functional literacy also contains 4 subject areas: Education for parenting and family with basics of health education, Education for environmental protection, Education for life in the community and Functional skills.
After successful completion of the Elementary Functional Literacy Programme, learners can continue with the primary school programme for adults or attend a vocational training programme for simple occupations, thus creating opportunities for their successful integration through inclusion in the world of work.
Non-formal education of adults: Programmes of education for acquiring and upgrading key skills and key competences are adopted by the National Council for Education, following the proposal of the Centre for Vocational Education or adult education providers. So far, the Council has accredited 105 programmes of education for acquiring key skills and acquiring and upgrading key competences, such as:
- foreign languages
- Montenegrin language for foreigners
- use of information and communication technologies
- entrepreneurship, etc.
Programmes of education also relate to: acquiring knowledge and skills for civil democracy, environmental protection, sustainable development, family life, successful social integration, raising the quality of life, health education, social skills, third age, and similar.
Measures for acquiring recognized qualifications in adulthood
Formal adult education is carried out according to publicly valid educational programme or one part of programme (module, unit of study, etc.) based on which the level of education, or one or several professional qualifications, is acquired. Publicly valid education programmes for primary, secondary general and vocational education are adapted to adults in terms of scope, organisation and duration, in accordance with law and the methodology for adapting the programmes.
Vocational adult education is carried out in accordance with the Law on Vocational Education. An adult may, as a part-time learner, acquire a qualification of education level.
Since 2012, the educational programmes for vocational education have been prepared according to the principle of modularisation and credit valuation, which provides adult learners with gradual vertical mobility and easy access to the world of education from the world of work.
By March 2023, the National Council for Education adopted 125 education programmes for training in certain professions leading to the acquisition of professional qualifications.
Non-formal education programmes, besides the abovementioned, may also include programmes for training, retraining, additional training, specialization and professional development.
Measures focused on transition to the labour market
Programmes of education for training, retraining, additional training, specialisation and professional development are adopted by the former Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, following the proposal of the National Council for Education. Prior to determining a draft programme of education, the competent council needs to obtain an opinion from competent state administration bodies, the Employment Office of Montenegro, the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro and a representative employers association and a representative trade union association. The adopted programmes of education for occupations are of various complexity and are based on the adopted occupational standard and qualification standard. The programmes have been made at the request of the Employment Office, business entities, employers, etc.
Other types of publicly subsidized measures for adult education
In order to include as many citizens as possible in the programmes of lifelong education and learning, and to upgrade their knowledge, skills and competences, the Government of Montenegro has adopted the Plan for Adult Education in Montenegro (2015-2019). The Plan for Adult Education and annual plans should lead to the achievement of the goals defined in the Strategy for Adult Education in Montenegro for the period 2015-2025. Annual plans are made on the basis of the adopted four-year plan for adult education, and they elaborate in detail activities according to priority areas and according to municipalities. The Annual Plan for Adult Education is an operational plan containing activities, target groups, activity holders, monitoring indicators, planned financial resources and sources of resources necessary for its implementation.
The Employment Office finances programmes of training, retraining and programmes for acquiring and upgrading knowledge, skills and competences of the unemployed.
Human Resources Administration finances programmes of professional development of employees in state administration.
Programmes for upgrading knowledge, skills and competences of employees of a particular area/sector are financed by the Ministry in charge of that department.
The Chamber of Economy and the Union of Employers organize and finance various programmes for their members.