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Glossary

Hungary

16.Glossary

Last update: 27 November 2023

Ágazati alapvizsga/Sectoral basic exam: Since 2020, in the system of initial vocational education and training, the sectoral basic exam is a state examination, which measures the required basic professional knowledge and competences of the training’s participants to work in the given sector within the framework of a nationally unified procedure. The successfully completed exam entitles the candidate to enter dual training. The common base provides interoperability between the technicum and the vocational school.

Ágazati Készségtanácsok (ÁKT-k)/Sector Skills Councils (SSCs): The SSCs started their operations from 1st of July, 2018 based on the VET Act nr. CLXXXVII dated in 2011. The task of the SSCs is to create harmony between the labour-market demand and the training system, furthermore to contribute for having the Vocational Education and Training (VET) and Adult Learning (AL) systems duly operated and to assist in the process of necessary transformation by making comments and proposals. Permanent members of the SSCs are from companies, who undertook to play both a coordinating and an intermediary role within the given sectors and besides they have adequate information about labour-market demands and are able to draft professional demands in order to promote VET and AL.

Akkreditált vizsgaközpont/Accredited examination centre: An institution can become an accredited examination centre, which, based on the national standards published by the Hungarian Standards Institution, meets the eligibility criteria of personal certification bodies in accordance with the Act on National Accreditation (Act CXXIV of 2015). The accreditation body is the National Accreditation Authority (NAH).

Alapfeladat/basic task means the duty in any education sector laid down in the deed of foundation of the education institution.

In public education, basic tasks are:

a) kindergarten education,

b) kindergarten education of those belonging to a nationality,

c) basic school education,

 d) basic school education of those belonging to a nationality,

e)  education in dormitory,

f) education for nationalities in dormitory,

g) school education in upper secondary general schools (gimnázium),

h) school education in upper secondary vocational school (szakgimnázium)

i) education in special vocational school (szakiskola)

j) special education for development (készségfejlesztő iskolai nevelés-oktatás)

k) education for nationalities in upper secondary general schools (gimnázium)

l) education for nationalities in upper secondary vocational schools (szakgimnázium)

m) (additional) language teaching for nationalities (kiegészítő nemzetiségi nyelvoktatás)

n) adult education

o) basic art education

p) developmental education (fejlesztő nevelés-oktatás)

q) tasks of pedagogical services (pedagógiai szakszolgálati feladat)

r) kindergarten and school education of children / students with special education needs educated together with other children / students,

s) kindergarten/school education and education in dormitories of children / students with special education needs whose education better suits special SEN institution

t) education (necessary to fulfil compulsory education) of children with long term health treatment in health care institutions

u) pedagogical professional support service (pedagógiai-szakmai szolgáltatás)

v) operation of the Network of SEN teachers and assistants travelling to schools

w) basic art education for nationalities (nemzetiségi alapfokú művészetoktatás)

x) additional kindergarten education for nationalities (kiegészítő nemzetiségi óvodai nevelés)

In vocational education and training, basic tasks may be:

a) vocational secondary school education,

b) vocational education,

c) vocational secondary school education of nationalities,

d) vocational education of nationalities,

e) adult education.

And in higher education, basic tasks may be:

a) education including postsecondary short programmes, bachelor programmes, master programmes, postgraduate short programmes, and doctoral programmes

(b) research

 c) artistic creation.

Alapszakma/Basic vocation: Basic vocation can be studied in technical vocational schools (technicum) and vocational schools (szakképző iskola), where sectoral basic education is followed by vocational education and training. The curriculum is based on the Training and Output Requirements.

Alaptanterv/Core curriculum (CC): CC means a type of curriculum, which determines the compulsory uniform goals of education taking place in the framework of general education for one particular school system, to be applied throughout the whole education period in all schools with regard to all students. It focuses especially on the development tasks and general competences that form the basis of education work and are to be implemented in each specific phase of education. It defines the main areas of education – the so-called fields of general knowledge– and development areas (which are cross-cutting in that they span fields of general knowledge) and educational goals. It serves as a basis for authors of framework curricula and educational programmes, textbook authors and editors, authors of auxiliary educational material and tools, experts who work out the requirements of state examinations and the tools of national measurement and assessment, and, above all, teachers.

Általános Iskola/Basic School: Primary and lower secondary education is mostly organized in basic schools in eight grades (ISCED 1 and 2) according to nationally uniform requirements. Basic schools prepare students for the continuation of studies in upper secondary school in line with their interest, capabilities and talent.

Általános képzés/General education: General education is the teaching of fundamental general knowledge in school, and the optimal development of the associated competences. The knowledge and skills acquired in the course of general education enables students to solve specific tasks and problems, laying the groundwork for specialized trainings at various levels.

Attitűd/Attitude: According to the Hungarian Qualifications Framework an individual's lasting approach towards or assessment of an object, person or abstract concept. It is made up of emotional (affective), intellectual (cognitive) and action-related (conative/behavioural) components. These express a positive or negative relationship with the object (or person or abstract concept) and consist of the individual's knowledge of it and behaviour towards it. All this has an effect on absorbing information from the environment and on interpreting goals – and allows the individual to react to specific situations quickly and reliably. Attitudes are learned, and they are relatively permanent and difficult to change.

Blended rendszerű képzések/Blended learning is a combined form of learning/teaching, in which independent learning based on digital learning material is supplemented with a personal presence and contact hours. On such occasions, consultations and mentoring take place. In the case of vocational training, practical training shall be organized in contact hours.

Bölcsőde/Nursery is part of the child welfare system and is under the auspices of the Ministry for Culture and Innovation. The bölcsőde is responsible for the care of children under 3. The child may stay one year longer depending on his or her physical and emotional maturity.

Diákkör/The Student Circle: Students of a school/dormitory may establish student circles to organise their joint activities in connection with education.

Diákönkormányzat/The Student Council Students and student circles may create student councils to represent students’ interests. The teacher nominated for this task supports the work of the student council-

Doktori értekezés/Doctoral dissertation means a written work, composition or paper whereby the PhD / DLA candidate demonstrates in the course of the doctoral degree award procedure that he/she is capable of fulfilling an independent research assignment appropriate to the degree requirements.

Dobbantó programme/Springboard programme: The aim of the orientation (basic competence developing year) in the frame of the Springboard programme (Dobbantó programme), is to offer possibility for 15 to 25 years old young people with behaviour and learning disorders or who have already dropped out of education and training or are about to leave the system. The programmes offered in special vocational schools enable them to find the best way to return to the school system or to the world of work and to move on toward a successful individual career.

Duális képzés/Dual training in vocational training is a form of secondary vocational training in the course of which vocational training at the institution and at labour market participants, companies and firms takes place in parallel and in a complementary manner.

Egész életen át tartó tanulás/Lifelong learning: The goal of lifelong learning is to meet the requirements of the knowledge-based society when it comes to professional skills and knowledge, as well as ensuring full-scale participation in social life and economy. Lifelong learning ensures self-development that results in the further development of skills as required by new technologies and the challenges of the labour market and modern society. Lifelong learning can also be interpreted in a broader way to include formal, non-formal and informal learning in all areas of life.

Egésznapos iskola/all-day school means the form of school organisation where lessons and other activities are organised evenly distributed over the morning and the afternoon periods.

Egészségügyi alkalmassági vizsgálat/Health test means a medical examination involving physical endowments and health condition to determine whether a person is capable of pursuing the chosen activity and whether such activity could jeopardise his/her health. Higher education institutions may require Health test as a prerequisite to start studies in certain programmes.

Előzetesen megszerzett tudás beszámítása/Recognition of prior learning means that the documented studies of the applicant are taken into consideration, as a result of which the applicant may be exempted from a training part of the course.

Egyéni munkarend/An individualized work schedule may be applied for a fixed period of time, which is beneficial for the successful continuation and completion of the compulsory education. Holders of an individualized work schedule, with the exception of vocational training inside or outside the school, should be exempted from all compulsory school classes. A student who has been exempted from attending compulsory classes shall report on his or her knowledge in a manner determined by the principal and in a manner determined by the Board of Education. In the case of students in public education institutions, from 1 September 2019, at the request of the parent/guardian, the Educational Authority approves the individualized work schedule.

Esti képzés munkarendje/The schedule of evening training means an educational schedule by which during term-time classes are held after 16:00 or on non-working days.

FAR/Adult Training Data Providing System: From 1 September 2020 adult training providers shall initiate their authorisation or registration procedure in a new module of the KRÉTA system, the Adult Training Data Providing System Module. The FAR system is also used to

•           issue certificates proving the completion of a training;

•           provide data regarding training loans;

•           record the participants’ satisfaction assessments

 

Fejlesztési feladat/Development task a form of activity assigned by the teacher and carried out by the student, aimed at improving the student's abilities and competences, usually taking place in the course of processing study materials. The NCC encourages personality development in education by establishing the development tasks that serve the development of the abilities of students. The development tasks define the areas of ability development. They specify which key competence should be developed in each of the phases of education. Goals may be defined at different levels of abstraction, and may place emphasis on different aspects of the teaching process. They are often presented as descriptions or indications of activities in the field of the organization of learning; in other cases, they list student activities to be carried out in the interest of development. Key development tasks, which pervade all elements of school education, play a special role in the regulation of curricula. They promote the strengthening of cross-curricular links, the unification of attitudes to teaching and learning and the development of students' personalities.

Fejlesztési területek – nevelési célok/Development fields – educational goals: Development fields – educational goals span fields of general knowledge, and – along with key competences – they pervade almost all elements of education in schools, promoting the strengthening of cross-curricular links, the unification of attitudes to teaching and learning and the development of students' personalities.

Félév/Semester means an instruction provision period of five months.

Felnőttképzés/Adult training refers to the organization of adult learning outside the school system.

Felnőttképzési tevékenységhez kapcsolódó szolgáltatás/Adult training supplementary service is an activity aimed at facilitating the personalization of education, training, improving the effectiveness of training or employment in the context of adult training activities (e.g. validation of prior knowledge, career counselling).

Felnőttoktatás/Adult education refers to the school-based general education of adults.

Fenntartó/Maintainer means the natural or legal person who or which has obtained or has the right to perform public education tasks and meets the requirements necessary for operating the educational institution.

Gimnázium/Upper Secondary General Grammar School is an educational institution operating with four, six or eight grades respectively, if a preparatory language year is included, with five, seven or nine grades, where education founding general knowledge and preparing for the upper secondary-school leaving examination and commencing higher education studies is carried out.

Habilitáció/Habilitation means the assessment of instruction and lecturing skills and the academic performance of holders of a scientific degree.

Halmozottan hátrányos helyzetű gyermek/Disadvantaged or multiply disadvantaged children: Disadvantaged children are those who are entitled to regular child protection allowance or are of full age and at least one of these conditions apply:

  1. low level of education of the parent (basic education)
  2. low level of employment of the parent (seeking job in 12 months during the last 16 months)
  3. inappropriate living conditions

Multiply disadvantaged children are those who

  1. are entitled to regular child protection allowance or are of full age and at least two of the above-mentioned conditions apply
  2. are in foster care
  3. are young adult students in after-care

Helyi tanterv/Local curriculum: The lowest of the three levels of curricular regulation, and the one with the greatest practical importance. Local curricula are compiled by schools in accordance with the goals set out in their pedagogical programme and fundamental principles. Schools' local curricula are generally created by the teaching staff on the basis of the relevant framework curriculum approved by the minister responsible for education in accordance with local characteristics, and adapting it to their own needs within the established limits. A basic requirement for local curricula is to be in line with the relevant framework curriculum on the basis of which they were created and fill the extra available time (10% on average) with teaching and learning contents and activities consistent with the local content and the profile of the school in question.

Intézményi Tanács/Institutional Council: Parents, students, the teaching staff, the local government of the seat of the institution, historic churches, and the maintainer may establish an institutional council in the school for the representation of the interest of local communities.,

Iskolaegészségügyi Rendszermodul (IR)/School Health Care module: In 2020 the School Health Care module for school physicians and health visitors was created. The module supports primary health care in schools, such as

-medical screening,

-careful monitoring of the children at risk: having somatic or mental disorders, or respective disadvantaged social background,

- documentation of acute treatment and vaccines,

-health education,

- child protection and environmental health measures

-compiling reports.

Iskolaszék/School Board may be established to facilitate the educational and teaching work at schools and to promote the cooperation of the teaching staff, parents and students, the maintainers of the institution, as well as other institutions involved in the operation of the institution, with an equal number of representatives of parents, the teaching staff, and the student council.

Kamarai garanciavállalás/Chamber guarantee: The aim of the chamber guarantee system is to strengthen the priority of practical training at business organizations and to expand dual training. The guarantee system of the chamber significantly helps students to acquire the chosen professional qualification as soon as possible in a corporate environment, through learning embedded in the work process. A student can only complete training practice at school if there is no dual training place available. The Chamber shall certify this fact in the manner specified in its internal regulatory instrument.

 

Kancelláriarendszer/Chancellery System: Introduction of the Chancellery System in VET: the responsible head of the vocational training centre is the director general, but the chancellor is responsible for economic, financial, labour, legal activities and asset management of the institution.

Kar/Faculty means the organisational unit in charge of the instruction, research, and artistic activities of related degree programmes in one or more fields of training or discipline of science as defined in the educational programme.

Képesítési keretrendszer/Qualifications framework is a formalized structure in which learning level descriptors and qualifications are featured by learning outcomes. The purpose of the Hungarian National Qualification Framework is foster transparency and better readability of qualifications, and as a communication tool, to promote the cooperation between educational providers and stakeholders.

Képesítő vizsga/Qualification examination: The exam that follows the completion of the vocational training, takes place at an independent accredited examination centre -at the request of the adult-, and gives a state accredited qualification certificate.

Képzési és kimeneti követelmények/Education Training and Learning Outcomes Requirements: Programme completion and exit requirements mean the knowledge, skills, proficiency and abilities (competencies) whose acquisition is a precondition for acquiring a diploma in the given programme.

Képzési program/Educational programme means the complex training document of the HE institution, which contains a) a detailed programme and academic requirements of the Bachelor, Master and one-tier trainings, higher education vocational trainings and specialist postgraduate programmes, b) a vocational training programme in higher education vocational training, and c) the plan of programme courses, together with detailed rules of training, thus the curriculum, the programme of studies and course-units, and the evaluation and assessment methods together with the pertaining procedures and rules.

Kerettanterv/Framework curriculum: The minister responsible for education approves framework curricula regarding each phase of education based on the National Core Curriculum, containing content elements and serving as the basis for local implementation. Framework curricula define the system of subjects, the time frame (number of classes) of each subject, the structure of study materials and their distribution among grades and the basic content for textbooks. Within the specified limits, each school adapts the framework curriculum to its own situation

Készségek és képességek/Skills and ability: According to the Hungarian Qualifications Framework, a skill is an automated, often "overlearned" component of activities that requires no conscious control and can be executed without direct monitoring by the attention-execution system. This basic characteristic of skills does not preclude skills from functioning as the automated component of conscious activities. Obtaining or forming skills requires the learning of rules and their extensively repeated application (e.g. spelling). Abilities are innate and change in accordance with the interaction of the programme of biological development and the environment; their result is the capability for some type of action or performance. Abilities form over long time periods, starting inexorably at a certain point in childhood and puberty (e.g. the appearance of the ability to think logically); this provides a foundation for the teaching of skills. The teaching and learning of skills requires a sufficient level of basic ability. Abilities are innate but they can be developed. Biological and environmental (family, school etc.) influences supply the natural environment of ability development; a person's set of abilities changes and develops in the course of human activity. There are certain general abilities (intelligence, creativity, the components of the knowledge acquisition system) that are expressed in a wide range of activities; there are also specialized abilities that are only employed in certain special fields (dexterity, musical ability, vivid imagination, the ability to do well in certain specific sports). Abilities and skills are closely related: abilities supply the foundation for skills; at the same time, skills and knowledge are two crucial and mutually required and determinative components of the same thing, determining competences together.

Kisgyermeknevelő/Early childhood educator is a professional who provides care for infants and young children from the age of newborn to 3.

Klebelsberg Képzési Ösztöndíj/Klebelsberg Training Scholarship is a state scholarship, created with the purpose to ensure the supply of teachers. The scholarship is open for higher education students participating in the undivided HE teacher programme. After finishing their studies, the scholarship holder is obliged to establish an employment relationship with a public educational institution designated by the state maintainer (Klebelsberg Centre) and maintain the employment relationship for a period equivalent to the payment of the scholarship.

Kollégium/Dormitory is an educational institution which provides necessary environment for conducting school studies

a) for the students who study far from their residence to exercise their freedom to choose the school or study in a nationality language or in an adapted physical educational institution,

b) owing to circumstances at home which jeopardise the physical integrity and mental health or the learning of the student.

Kompetencia/Competence: According to Hungarian Qualifications Framework a competence is an amalgamation of knowledge and skills that, if accompanied by the right attitudes, ensures that the individual is able and ready to act effectively and successfully in a given situation. In the interpretations and key competence recommendations of the European Union, "competence" means a dynamically shaped complex cognitive and psychological structure made up of a system of knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes that enables the individual to carry out certain activities.

Köznevelési Intézmény Vezetője/The Head of the Public Education: Institution Public Education Act (CXC of 2011) 69§, among others, states that school heads are responsible for: professional and legal operation; the careful use of properties; proper management if applicable; employers' rights if applicable; drafting school regulation defined by law; validating the pedagogical programme of the school; representing school; professional work; leading the teacher staff; preparing, implementing and controlling the decisions of the teaching staff; the organisation of the celebration of national festive days; providing child and youth protection tasks specified by law; co-ordinating tasks related to the child protection warning system; health and safety issues of the given institution/s; co-ordinating work with employee representation bodies, school board, parents' union, student union and parents' organisation; preventing student accidents; organising regular students' health checks specified by law; and ensuring teacher ethical standards. The school head may initiate professional inspection at school.

Közösségi szolgálat/community service means social and environmental protection activity, as well as its educational processing, carried out individually or in group for the advantage of the local community of the student, which is carried out within organised framework and is independent of financial interests.

Kredit/Credit means a unit of students’ work which represents in relation to the course-unit or curricular unit the estimated time necessary for the acquisition of a specific body of knowledge and the fulfilment of requirements; one credit equals 30 study hours on average, and the value of a credit – supposing that the student’s performance was accepted – does not depend on the evaluation the student’s knowledge received.

Levelező képzés munkarendje/Training schedule of correspondence training means a schedule of training provision where, unless otherwise stated in an agreement concluded with the students concerned, the contact hours of students are delivered in a condensed form, on working days or on regular holidays once every two weeks at the most, and the methods of distance learning are applied in the rest of the training.

Magyar állami (rész)ösztöndíjas hallgató/Fully(partially) State Funded Student means students whose places are fully (or partially) funded by the State of Hungary.

Magyar állami (rész)ösztöndíjjal támogatott képzés/Fully (or partially) State-funded programme: HE Programme fully or partially funded by the State of Hungary

Mentorprogram/Mentoring programme means a particular form of training where disadvantaged and/or international students are assisted with learning and/or student life skills by the student or lecturer of the higher education institution.

Minősítési eljárás/Certification procedure means the procedure for the certification of the teacher’s performance which is necessary for promotion.

Műhelyiskola/School workshop programme: The School workshop programme prepares disadvantaged students for obtaining a partial-profession, which has to be organized in practical workshop or in workplace in formal education, in a group of 5 students. The duration of acquiring a partial qualification is minimum 6 months and maximum 24 months with no regard to the academic year order. There are no general subjects. All knowledge bounds to the partial qualification, what the student acquires from his/her master. The teacher supports the education as a mentor.

Műveltségi terület/Subject areas are general knowledge content elements of education, chosen from the domains of national and universal culture based on social, pedagogical, psychological and logical considerations. The National Core Curriculum – considering the integrative nature of modern culture with respect to the theory of science and didactics – describes overarching fields of general knowledge. The fields of general knowledge provide a framework on the basis of which separate or integrated subjects can be created by framework curricula, local curricula and curricular programmes.

Nemzeti Alaptanterv/National Core Curriculum: The NCC is the fundamental document of the regulation of Hungarian national public education. It is more of a basis for drawing up framework curricula and local curricula, subject-level programmes, examination requirements, textbooks and other study aids. The core curriculum is national in nature because it transmits and promotes shared national values, contributing to the conservation of national traditions and the development of the sense of national identity. The National Core Curriculum is issued by the Government by decree. As required by the Act on National Public Education, the core curriculum is periodically reviewed.

NEPTUN-KRÉTA: Köznevelési Regisztrációs és Tanulmányi Alaprendszer (NEPTUN-KRÉTA) Public Education Registration and Study Core System: -NEPTUN-KRÉTA is an electronic school and study administration system. It makes possible the effective administration of the Hungarian public schools/educational system, administration and teaching management related tasks.

Nevelési év/Kindergarten year means, in the kindergarten, the period from 01 September to 31 August of the following year.

Oktatói Továbbképzési Rendszer (OTR)/In-Service Training System (OTR): IKK Innovative Training Support Center Ltd. (IKK) provides planning, coordination, organization and continuous review of the training and in-service training of trainers in vocational training at national strategic level. IKK has established and operates a nationally unified In-Service Training System (OTR) for the professional implementation of this task. The system contributes to the renewal of vocational training, helps to develop the digital competence of educators and promotes the improvement of the quality of vocational education. The OTR is a new professional support tool that provides instructors and heads of institutions in vocational training with at least sixty hours of in-service training every four years.

Óraadó/part-time teacher means a teacher who is employed under a general agreement for teaching not more than 14 lessons or activities a week.

Oktatók/Instructors The new LXXX VET Act of 2019 introduced a new notion regarding the teaching stuff of VET institutions (teachers, lecturers with agency contracts, practical instructors, etc.). From the beginning of the academic year 2020/2021 they are named uniformly INSTRUCTORS.

Orientációs osztály/Orientation year is a competency-developing year which is addressed for those young people who are uncertain in their career choice or who finished their basic school with lack of competences. Its aim is not to repeat the basic school curriculum, but rather than, based on the assessment of the student competences deepen their self-knowledge and provide them career orientation and guidance. The condition for the student to entry upper secondary VET programmes is to possess those basic competences which are basically needed to successfully finish a VET programme and obtain a profession.

Osztott/osztatlan képzés/Cycled/single-tear HE programme: If the undergraduate and graduate programs are implemented in cycles built on each other, we are talking about cycled training programmes. If such separate cycles are not present, it is called single-tier degree programme.

Óvoda/Kindergarten is an institution educating the child from the age of three until the start of compulsory education. It is compulsory; however, Parents may ask the exemption of the child from kindergarten education depending on the conditions of the family and the individual circumstances of the child. The permission is issued by the district notary in accordance with the opinion of the head of the kindergarten and the nurse of the district.

Óvodai Nevelés Országos Alapprogramja/National Core Programme of Kindergarten Education and Care issued by the government determines the principles of education in kindergartens in Hungary. The kindergartens develop their own local curriculum on the basis of this document. Regularly but at least every five year the minister responsible for education revises the Core Programme in line with the experience meantime gained.

Önértékelés/Self-assessment: In the course of the institutional comprehensive self-assessment, based on the assessment of the fulfillment of the institutional expectations of the teacher, the head and the institution, teachers and the head identify the outstanding and developable areas for the institution. In the course of self-assessment, the institution examines how it was able to meet the goals set out in its own pedagogical program.

Pályaalkalmassági vizsgálat/Aptitude test means the verification of abilities to determine whether the applicant possesses the abilities and characteristics that enable him or her to undertake the studies and to pursue the activity that corresponds to the professional or specialised qualification.

Pedagógiai Program/Pedagogical Programme: Education in kindergartens, at schools and in dormitories is conducted in accordance with the pedagogical programme. The pedagogical programme is adopted by the teaching staff and approved by the head of the institution. For provisions of the pedagogical programme that impose additional obligations on the provider, the consent of the provider is required in order to take effect. The pedagogical programme has to be made public. As part of the pedagogical programme of the school, a local curriculum has to be developed to complement the framework curriculum.. The local curriculum specifies which of the framework curricula was chosen and makes provisions for the use of up to ten per cent of the time frame of compulsory and non-compulsory class activities defined in the general curriculum. The dormitory also has to develop its pedagogical programme taking into consideration the pedagogical programme of the school concerned.

Pedagógiai Szakszolgálatok/Pedagogical Assistance Services: The educational work of parents and teachers as well as the performance of the duties of the educational institutions are assisted by pedagogical assistance services. Pedagogical assistance services are:

a) SEN education counselling, early development and care,

b) Activities of the committee of experts

c) Educational counselling

d) Speech therapeutic care

e) Further study and career counselling

f) Conductive educational service

g) Physiotherapy

h) School psychology and kindergarten psychology service

i) Guidance of particularly talented children / students.

Pedagógiai-szakmai szolgáltatások/Pedagogical Professional Services: The work of educational institutions, pedagogical professional service institutions and their maintainers and that of teachers, as well as the activity related to the protection of the interest of students are assisted by pedagogical professional services. Pedagogical professional services are:

a) pedagogical evaluation,

b) professional and subject related counselling and

c) provision of educational information,

d) public education administration services,

e) supporting and organizing  the training, in-service training and self-education of teachers,

f) organisation and harmonisation of study, sports and talent promotion competitions,

g) information and counselling service for students.

Pedagógusok előmeneteli rendszere/ Promotion System of Teachers: The Act on Public Education guarantees the possibility of promotion of employees in teacher position throughout their career. Employees in teacher position may reach the following grades on the basis of their qualification, experience and research work a) Trainee, b) Teacher I., c) Teacher II., d) Master teacher, e) Research Teacher.

Programkövetelmény (PK)/Programme requirements: Adult training shall be organised based on programme requirements registered by the minister responsible for VET.  Adult training providers elaborate a training programme based on these requirements. The aim of the training programme is to prepare the students according to the learning outcomes established in the programme requirements, by defining the teaching methodology and training curriculum.

Programtanterv (PTT)/Programme Curricula: The Register of Vocational Occupations beside the basic vocational professions recognized by the state, contains their content standards too. For each basic VET profession listed in the register has been established training and learning outcome requirements (képzési és kimeneti követelmények - KKK) published by the Minister responsible for VET based on the proposal of the Sectoral Skills Councils and not as a legal regulation. Another compulsory element is the programme curricula developed in conformity with the KKK’s, which replace the former VET framework curricula. Based on the programme curricula VET institutions have to prepare their local professional programme (local curriculum), and if they deliver practical training in school workshops, a practical training programme too. Dual training placements in companies also have to work out a practical training programme.

Résztanulmányok folytatása/Supplementary Studies in another higher education institution means the period when a student obtains credit in another higher education institution while enjoying a visiting student status.

Részszakma/Partial vocation: It is possible to study a partial vocationin the framework of the legal student relationship of the student (typically in a workshop school) and in the legal student relationship of adult education. Vocational training and output requirements - as a partial vocation - can be defined as an independently separable part of a profession, which enables the acquisition of competencies necessary for filling at least one job.

Részszakképesítés/Partial qualification qualifies to perform at least in one job, its exam and professional requirements include certain modules of a vocational qualification.

Sajátos nevelési igényű gyermek/children/students with special education needs means children / students requiring special treatment who, based on the expert opinion of the committee of experts, are physically disabled or have perceptual, mental difficulties or speech disorder, or have multiple disabilities in case of the simultaneous occurrence of these or have autism spectrum disorder or any other psychic disorder (serious disorder concerning learning or the control of attention or behaviour).

Szakképzési Innovációs Tanács (SZIT)/VET Innovation Council: Development of VET and adult learning is based on a professional policy development where the core element is the cooperation. Renewing VET and adult learning is possible only with the involvement of the stakeholders from the economy, from the sectors. It means primarily the involvement of employers, as they are in a position to determine the requirements in demand related to employees. The VET Innovation Council offers the formal frame of this dialogue and common thinking. The Ministry of Culture and Innovation considers one of its most important tasks to reckon the VET Innovation Council as a continuous conciliation body, which serves the issues of VET, adult learning and adult education by its forward-looking recommendations and innovative development directions

Szakképesítés/Vocational qualification: In the IVET system which entered into force in 2020, a state accredited certification to occupy a job, can be achieved by vocational training. The state-recognized vocational qualification – in cases before 1 September 2020 and in cases applied during the transitional rules - is specified in the Register of Vocational Occupations.  It qualifies to occupy one or more positions’ posts, and its professional and examination requirements may include several own modules or module(s) common with other vocational qualifications. 

Szakképesítés-ráépülés/Add-on qualification is based on the qualification (szakképesítés) specified in the professional and examination requirements, including several own modules and qualifies to occupy other jobs. An add-on qualification can be based on several qualifications.

Szakképzés/Initial vocational education and training: According to the regulations which entered into force in 2020it is vocational education and training that prepares and provides professional knowledge required for a job or activity that does not require higher education.

Szakképzési munkaszerződés/VET employment contract: Apprenticeship contracts are replaced by employment contracts which are concluded also between the student and the company, but in its framework student can learn beside practical training vocational subjects also, and its duration will be count towards seniority.

Szakképzettség/ Professional qualification: In the IVET system, which entered into force in 2020, the state accredited certificate that entitles its holder to practice the profession can be achieved after the vocational education within the framework of the professional examination.

Szakképző iskola/Vocational school: Vocational schools within the framework of a 3-year training programme combine general education and VET. In the first year (grade 9) students learn general education subjects and common contents of the vocational occupations affiliated to the same economic sector. In the next two years (grades 10 and 11) in the framework of specialized vocational studies (dual training) students can acquire an EQF 3 or 4 level (ISCED 353) basic VET occupation.  Graduates can enter the labour market or choose to obtain a secondary school leaving certificate in Technicums, within the framework of a two-year training programme.

Szakképző intézmény/VET institution: Technicums and the vocational schools are part of the VET system introduced in a phasing-in system from 1 September 2020.

Szakmai alkalmassági vizsga/Attestation of competence means an examination determined by the higher education institution which measures the abilities required for the selected professional or specialised qualification and examines whether the student possesses the abilities whose optimal development ensures completion of the preparatory phase.

Szakmai gyakorlat/Practical course means partially independent student activity carried out in an external practical training location or a practical training location belonging to the higher education institution as part of higher education vocational training, Bachelor, Master or one-tier training programmes.

Szakmai oktatás/Vocational education: Vocational education can be provided in the framework of IVET and formal school-based adult education. 

Szakmai képzés/Vocational training: Vocational training can be provided in the framework of adult training by adult training providers if they previously had registered or authorised their activity.

Szakmajegyzék/ Register of Vocational Occupations: According to Act LXXX of 2019 on VET the National Qualifications Register (HuQR) has renamed to Register of Vocational Occupations (HuRVO). The number of qualifications listed in it have been reduced and renamed/reformed as basic vocational occupations.

Szakmai vizsga/Professional examination: In the system of the IVET, which entered into force in 2020, the professional examination is a state exam, that measures the professional knowledge learned during the vocationally oriented education which is specified for each profession in the training and learning outcome requirements (KKK) in initial vocational education and training within the framework of a nationally unified procedure. The professional examination consists of an interactive computer exam part and of an implementation of a project task part. Depending on the specifics of the given profession, the project task can be the implementation of; a practical exam, exam piece, exam paper or other exam type, or the preparation of a dissertation or portfolio. The examination takes place in independent examination centres, with a three-member examination committee. In case of a successful professional examination, the candidate obtains a state-recognized qualification of the profession and of the upper-secondary completion both in technicums (technikum) and in vocational school (szakképző iskola).

Szakmaképzés/vocatational education in school system: In the system of the IVET, which entered into force in 2020, the acquisition of professions takes place in the school-system within the framework of the vocational education: in the five-year technicums (technikum), Upper Secondary School leaving examination and technician-level professional qualification, and in the three-year vocational schools (szakképző iskola) professional qualification can be achieved by the student. The number of eligible professions are currently 174, which is included in the register of vocational occupations.

Szakképzés Információs Rendszer (SZIR)/ VET Information System: From 2020 the data related to the VET institutions have to be registered in the VET Information System which is a new module of the KRÉTA system.  The SZIR is public and can be reached on the following link: https://szir.nive.hu/publikus

Szülői szervezet/Parental Organisation: Parents may establish parental organisations (associations) to exercise their rights and fulfil their obligations at kindergartens, schools and dormitories, with the right of expressing opinion and submitting proposal on issues concerning the operation and the work of the institution.

Tananyagegység/Curriculum unit: a training unit with independent content on which the training program is built upon.

Tanév/ school year means, in schools and dormitories, the period from 01 September to 31 August of the next year.

Tanév/academic year means in higher education an instruction provision period of ten months.

Tanfelügyelet/Inspection: The national pedagogical inspection is for the external evaluation of the professional activities of educational institutions and teachers on the basis of general pedagogical aspects and for the support of their professional development.

Tanítási év/Teaching year means, unless otherwise provided by law, the term time from the first working day of September of each year until the last working day before 16 June of the next year, except for the year of school-leaving or vocational examination.

Tanítási nap/School day means in each form any day used for educational purposes including any form or group sessions being a part of the educational programme of the school and activities devoted to school excursions, environmental educational events or cultural or sports events provided that the number of activity hours reaches three.

Tankötelezettség halasztása/Postponement of compulsory schooling: From 1 January 2020, the Educational Authority decides whether a child who has reached compulsory school age, mostly the age of six, may remain in pre-school education for another year. The proceedings are initiated at the request of the parent. Any relevant reason, circumstance, condition or fact may be stated in the application initiating the procedure, which justifies the postponement of the start of school. These circumstances are examined in the proceedings. The procedure of the Educational Authority is an administrative procedure. If the Educational Authority considers that a well-founded decision requires special expertise, it may consult a committee of experts assigned for the given territory. The expert committee formulates its expert opinion on the basis of a complex pedagogical - special education - psychological and, if necessary, medical examination, and the Educational Authority decides on this basis.

Tanulási eredmények/Learning outcomes: Learning outcomes are statements to be reached by the end of the educational course as a result of the teaching-learning process by completing the education. Learning outcomes to be achieved by students are usually described competences made up of a combination of 1) knowledge, 2 skills 3) attitudes, and 4) autonomy and responsibility.

Tanulási-tanítási folyamat/Teaching-learning process: The teaching-learning process is a series of communicative and interactive activities taking place between the students and the teacher and among students. It involves the active processing and effective learning of the study material (general competences) and the development of students' competences, and it teaches students how to learn on their own, become conscious of their own cognitive processes (meta-cognition) and acquire a high level of motivation for learning. In this process, differentiated, pedagogically established units of content are taught while taking into account the laws of the learning process, using continuous feedback, appropriate motivation and the active participation of students.

Tanulói tevékenység/Student activity: Student activity refers to the system of activities in the course of which – with the teacher's advice, guidance and evaluation – students learn the requirements associated with the study material defined by the curriculum.

Távoktatás/Distance education in HE: means a particular form of training, involving the use of ICT teaching aids, teaching-learning methods and digital study materials, based on the interactive relationship between lecturer and student and the student’s individual work, where the number of contact hours is less than 30% of the contact hours in full-time training.

Távoktatás/Distance education in AE: as defined in the Adult Training Act, distance education is a form of education in which the participant studies alone for more than half of the training period, independently, under the guidance/with help of the distance learning curriculum. Less than half of the training time is attended by consultations or traditional contact hours, and the learning package, which includes the curriculum, assessment and guidance materials needed to carry out the learning process on its own, is provided by the educator providing adult training.

Technikum/Technicum: Technicums within the framework of a 5-year programme combine five years of general education and VET with a possibility to have a preparatory foreign language year. After finishing the Technicum, students will receive together the upper secondary school leaving certificate (ISCED 344, EQF 4) and a technician diploma (ISCED 454, EQF 5). In the first two years (grades 9 and 10) students learn general subjects and common contents of the Vocational occupations affiliated to the same economic sector. In the next three years (grades 11, 12 and 13) beside less general subjects within the framework of dual training they learn specialized vocational studies.

Tevékenységekben megvalósuló tanulás/Activity-based leaning: In kindergarten, learning is a continuous, largely imitation-like, spontaneous and organized activity that supports the development of the whole personality. It is not narrowed down to the acquisition of a certain knowledge, it takes place in situations in the kindergarten day, in a natural and simulated environment, on excursions, in the forms of activities created by the kindergarten teacher, the formation of imitation-like and behavioural learning by following imitation patterns and models are realized in organizational and time frames. Its forms: - spontaneous playful experience, the playful, activity-based learning, acquisition of knowledge based on the questions and answers of the child, observations guided by the kindergarten teacher, gaining experience, discovery; the practical problem solving.

Többcélú Intézmény/Multi-purpose Institutions: The following instititutions can be multi-purpose institutions a) kindergarten-nursery, b) uniform school or complex school, c) public education institution under joint management, d) general community centre, e) uniform SEN and conductive education methodological institution. A multi-purpose institution may be established if the financial, material, technical and personnel requirements are provided for the performance of all duties.

Végbizonyítvány (abszolutórium)/Pre-degree certificate means a certificate that states without qualifications and evaluations that the student has passed the curricular examinations and – except for passing the language examination and writing the degree thesis – satisfied all academic requirements and has earned the number of credits prescribed in the programme completion and exit requirements – except for the credit points rendered to the degree thesis.

Vizsgakövetelmények/Examination requirements: A system of criteria at the borders of the major phases of the education system, with the aim of facilitating the comparison of the performance of individual students with the legally established levels. In the Hungarian education system, this role is traditionally assigned to the upper secondary school leaving examination. The competence-based approach to teaching and learning prioritizes the application of knowledge acquired in the course of school education when assessing student performance. The examination requirements prescribed by legislation (e.g. the requirements of the upper secondary school leaving examination)) are based on the National Core Curriculum.