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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
National reforms in vocational education and training and adult learning


14.Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

14.3National reforms in vocational education and training and adult learning

Last update: 17 April 2024


The Government reviewed and refined the VET 4.0 Strategy and the related Action Plan

The Government has refined the VET 4.0 strategy and the related Action Plan, revised the indicators and updated the palnned interventions, taking into account the experience of the VET system introduced from the 2020/2021 academic year and the expectations of the European Union on vocational and adult education. The changes have placed greater emphasis on basic competences, with particular emphasis on the development of literacy and maths, on compensating for disadvantage (special educational needs, disadvantaged or severely disadvantaged, disability) of learners and adults in training, on career guidance and counselling for learners and adults, and on measures to help adults with low educational attainment to enter the labour market and to raise their level of training. The revised Strategy (Szakképzés 4.0) and Action Plan (Cselekvési Terv) were adopted by Government Decision No. 1499 of 2023 (16 November) (1499/2023. (XI. 16.) Korm. határozat a 2021–2027 programozási időszak kohéziós célú támogatásainak kifizetését lehetővé tevő 4.2 „A nemek közötti egyenlőséget célzó nemzeti stratégiai keret” és a 4.3 „Az oktatási és képzési rendszer minden szintjét felölelő stratégiai szakpolitikai keret” tematikus feljogosító feltételek teljesítését alátámasztó dokumentumokról  ).

Salary increase for instructors in vocational education and training

The salary of teachers in vocational education and training is increasing. The wage improvement implemented in two stages means a total increase of 15 percent in 2023. The government's goal is to further strengthen the vocational education and training system, which was renewed two years ago, and one of the important preconditions is the greater appreciation of instructors.

Regarding the later periods - similarly to the already announced wage increases in public education - a further correction is also expected in vocational training.

Apáczai scholarship

In addition to the general scholarship, students in mainstream VET schools can also receive a larger allowance. Apáczai scholarships of HUF 16,000 to 34,000 per month can be applied for by ninth- and tenth-graders from a disadvantaged situation and with good academic results. In addition to financial incentives, the program also provides talent support for young people with the involvement of mentors from HUF 3 billion. Vocational students receive a general scholarship of HUF 8,000 to 16,000 per month, depending on the type of school. In addition, the Apáczai scholarship recipients receive extra support and mentoring to develop their talent. The competitive and motivating salary system of mentors facilitates the involvement of professionals working at companies in vocational training, which can also increase the number of potential mentors.

Fine-tuning the vocational education and training system

Following the experience of the ex-post impact assessment of the VET reform, the government has fine-tuned the VET and adult learning system by amending the Vocational Education and Training Act, the Adult Education and Training Act and other related acts, and the related government regulations.

Expansion of the Register of Qualifications

The Kindergarten teacher has been added as a new qualification, the Leatherworker has been supplemented by the professional pathway of Glove maker, and the Specialised Assistant in Histology has been deleted. In the case of Health Care Assistant, the Audiology Assistant professional pathway has been extended by one more professional field and is now available as Audiology Assistant and Hearing Acoustician pathway. In the case of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Mechatronics, the duration of vocational training has been increased from 3 to 4 years (from 2 to 3 years in the case of vocational training for vocational exam only).

Simplified regulation of VET programmes

As a result of the amendment to the Vocational Education and Training Act (Section 12 of the Act), the central Programme Curriculum has been removed as a content regulator, and VET schools now provide education and training on the basis of their vocational programme developed in accordance with the central rogramme outcomes standards and requirements.

The government has set up sectoral expert working groups to support the methodological work of teachers

In 2023, expert-led working groups focusing on specific industries and teaching methods were set up, involving teachers with a recognised, innovative approach to their profession. The working groups aim to promote innovative teaching methods and knowledge sharing, to change the mindset of VET teachers and to develop a methodological culture in VET. The meetings, held on a bi- or trimonthly basis in each sector and professional area, provide an opportunity to facilitate network learning, create a forum for community building among teachers, share good practice and knowledge, reflect together, share current information and build professional relationships. The aim is to progressively develop these forums in all 25 sectors, after the 11 that have been set up so far. 

Legal background for the control of adult education

The minister responsible for adult education has been authorized to establish a decree which details the rules of the control of adult trainings carried in person, in distance learning or online in a closed system, thus their set up and implementation and their obligation to provide data.

Support for talent development

The government has launched a 'Köbüki scholarship call' (Köbüki ösztöndíj-pályázat ) to recognise and encourage the professional activities and individual development of teachers involved in talent development. The call offers a HUF 75,000 monthly grant for one academic year to teachers of Hungarian language and literature, history, maths, physics, biology, chemistry, geography, IT (digital culture) or music culture who have at least 3 years of professional experience as teachers in Hungarian secondary education institutions and are currently teaching such subjects in Hungarian secondary education and are involved in talent development. By the deadline for submission, 1,048 applications were registered, and 957 applications were awarded funding on the basis of the decision. The total amount of funding for the 957 applications is HUF 717,750,000, half of which, i.e. HUF 358,875,000, will be paid from the 2023 budget and the other half, i.e. HUF 358,875,000, from the 2024 budget. The grant will take the form of a non-reimbursable scholarship at an intensity of 100%, to be paid in instalments by bank transfer according to the schedule set out in the grant award document. The funding period is from 01.09.2023 to 30.06.2024. The application is published and managed by the National Cultural Funding Agency on behalf of the Ministry.

The VET and Adult Education Career Tracking System is now operational 

A career tracking system for VET and adult education has been established in Hungary, containing both administrative data and survey results. The first connection of administrative dara was made in 2022, and will be updated twice a year. The first results were published in autumn 2023 by the National Authority for VET and Adult Education, which operates the system. The tracking period is 9 years, so that for young people moving from VET to higher education, delayed labour market transitions can still be tracked. (Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Pályakövetési Rendszer fejlesztése Magyarországon)

Increasing the number of participants in adult learning 

In Hungary, the implementation of two Technical Support Instrument (TSI) projects to strengthen lifelong learning has started with the support of the European Commission (DG Reform). 

The analysis of current conditions in the Individual Learning Account (ILA) project was completed in summer 2023, after which the development of a national concept started. The TSI project will be completed in May 2024, with the launch of the pilot project planned for 2025.

The second project for adult learning is the adaptation of a micro-credential framework for use in adult learning and on the labour market, which could also give new impetus to the further development of adult learning. The project kick-off meeting took place in July 2023 and interviews with Hungarian stakeholders were conducted in the autumn semester.


Scholarships for disadvantaged students

The “Útravaló” (Pathfinder) programme provides support for disadvantaged and multiply disadvantaged pupils and students from the last year of basic school (ISCED 1-2) until the HE graduation. The scholarship programme has four sub-programmes: Path to upper secondary school, Path to profession, Path to graduation, Path to diploma. Due to the governmental 2.5 billion HUF subsidy, more than ten thousand children and young people can benefit from this performance-based scholarship programme, the amount depends on the academic results of the pupil/student gained at the end of the previous school year. The programme is ongoing also in the school year 2022/23. (In Hungarian:

Addition, modification and deletion of VET programme requirements

Anyone can make a proposal to the minister responsible for vocational education about a programme requirement, its modification and deletion. In the procedure, the administrative deadline is three months, and the assignment of an expert is mandatory. The requesting client shall pay an administrative service fee for the procedure for registering, modifying and deleting the programme requirement - at the same time as the application is submitted.


For the implementation of the Public Collection Digitisation Strategy (Közgyűjteményi Digitalizálási Stratégia) the Government allocated 5.1 billion HUF. The document sets out digitisation tasks for memory institutions for the period 2017-2025, including access to digital contents and their use for educational purposes.

The infrastructure required for the launch of web archiving in Hungary was procured with the help of the state support for the development of the IT system of the National Széchényi Library, within the framework of the National Library System Project.

In addition, the Government has created the legal environment and the necessary financial background by amending the law and decrees so that the National Library can perform its task in the field of preservation and provision of “born-digital” content in addition to digitisation.

Introduction of the quality management system of vocational training institutions

In line with the Vocational Training Act and its implementing government decree, vocational training institutions must, as of 1 September 2022, carry out their vocational training tasks based on a set of criteria prescribed by law, based on a quality management system. In accordance with the applicable provisions of the new regulation, in order to maintain and improve high-quality operation, a new uniform institutional quality management system (MIR) was introduced in vocational education starting from the 2022/2023 academic year, which is based on the European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and Training (EQAVET).

In connection with the same regulations, a Chamber Quality Criteria System (KAMSZER) was introduced among business organisations providing dual vocational training, regardless of company size and vocation. This system is a set of value-based quality requirements.


Loans for adult trainings

Beside the higher education loans, student loan is available for adults (18-55) at the Student Loan Centre to finance their trainings so that they have the opportunity to participate in vocational education or in adult learning against their financial difficulties. The study loan can be used for only training fees in the case of feepaying programmes. In this case the loan is transferred directly to the institution (80%). The loan is available only for trainings of at least 3 months.

New training forms – certified technician

The 2021/2022 school year, certified technician courses were launched with 917 enrolled students in 10 sectors in 27 technicums of 16 vocational training centres in cooperation with 13 universities. In this type of training programme, a vocational training curriculum was developed with the cooperating higher education institutions. In addition, it can be coordinated with dual training. Those completing this course, obtain a secondary-school leaving examination and a certified technician diploma and can – provided, their professional exam has a qualification of ‘good’ or higher – gain access to a higher education undergraduate programme based on the vocation they have acquired, through a favourable scoring, and receive up to 30 credits for their previous studies at the relevant tertiary level.

Encouraging and supporting participation in adult learning

The EINOP Plus 3.2.1-21 call for proposals, launched in October 2021, received more than HUF 13 billion in training grant applications.  More than 1,000 companies received support. In terms of training, nearly 50,000 people have received training support and more than 4,500 training courses have been supported.