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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
National reforms in vocational education and training and adult learning


14.Ongoing reforms and policy developments

14.3National reforms in vocational education and training and adult learning

Last update: 27 November 2023
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Upon accepting the objectives of the Osnabruck Declaration on vocational education and training and in accordance with it, the Ministry of Education undertook to work on the National Implementation Plan.

The general objectives of the National Implementation Plan until 2025 are: Strengthening of quality assurance in VET with focus on WBL in all its forms, VET from lifelong learning perspective, Harmonization of VET provision with labour market needs, Digitalization of VET - digital schools. 

The following strategic documents are being prepared:
Lifelong Career Development Program (guidance) (2023-2025)
General Secondary Education Development Program (2023-2025)
Action Plan of the Strategy for the Development of Vocational Education in Montenegro (2023-2024).

In the previous period, 18 occupational standards, 24 professional qualification standards, 10 education level qualification standards and 10 educational programs were developed and adopted. All working groups were trained for the preparation of documents for the development of qualifications in the fields of: mechanical engineering and metalworking, healthcare, metallurgy, graphic technology, catering, agriculture, road traffic, ballet art, railway traffic, environmental protection, graphic design, electrical engineering.

Round tables "Supporting the economy in the development of new qualifications required by the labor market" were organized in the fields of ballet art, graphic design, security, railway traffic, environmental protection, mechanical engineering and metalworking, etc. Regular trainings were held for teachers, coordinators for monitoring the implementation of modularized educational programs, pedagogues/psychologists, teachers of general education subjects. 162 teachers, 43 new coordinators, 14 pedagogues/psychologists and 115 teachers of general education subjects from secondary vocational and mixed schools from all cities of Montenegro were trained.

Representatives of the VET Center, within their competences, organized regular monitoring and support activities schools in working with gifted students and students with special educational needs (a workshop was held for 35 representatives of primary and secondary schools, which provided for the possibilities that students have when they are included in the professional education program in relation to their capabilities, potential and interests). Schools were provided with support, according to the requirements, in the preparation of IROP and ITP2. Representatives of the VET Center organized regular activities of advisory support to schools in the implementation of modularized educational programs and the organization and implementation of the final exam.


The education process in secondary schools started on 5th September, the duration of the school lessons is now 45 minutes as it was before the pandemic and the curricula is adjusted to that duration. 

In the field of vocational education, in accordance with the Strategy for the Development of Vocational Education, the work continued on the development of occupational standards, qualification standards and educational programs. After its consideration by sectoral commissions and the procedure for developing occupational standards and qualifications, the Qualifications Council adopted 46 occupational standards, namely:

  • 11 occupational standards from the Engineering and Production Technologies Sector, Mechanical Engineering subsector;
  • 7 occupational standards from the Transport and Communications Sector, sub-sector Transport;
  • 4 occupational standards from the Health and Social Protection Sector, sub-sector Health;
  • 4 occupational standards from the Sector Mining, metallurgy and chemical industry, subsector: Metallurgy;
  • 6 occupational standards from the Sector Mining, metallurgy and chemical industry, sub-sector: Graphic technologies,
  • 7 occupational standards from the Tourism, Trade and Hospitality Sector, subsector: Hospitality;
  • 7 occupational standards from the Agriculture, Nutrition and Veterinary Sector, sub-sector: Agriculture.

On the basis of occupational standards, appropriate professional qualification standards were developed for 33 professional qualifications, as well as 8 educational level qualification standards. For two qualifications in the field of hospitality, all standards were revised.

The Center for Vocational Education organized trainings for the members of the working groups, which prepared educational programs based on the above-mentioned standards of qualifications, namely:

  • 4 educational programs from the Engineering and Production Technology Sector, Mechanical Engineering sub-sector;
  • 2 educational programs from the Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical Industry Sector, Metallurgy sub-sector;
  • 2 educational programs from the Tourism, Trade and Hospitality Sector, Hospitality sub-sector.


The education process in secondary schools started on 1st September, but the duration of the school lessons is 30 minutes, and the curricula is unique and adjusted to that duration. Temperature measurement and hand disinfection at the entrance of the schools are mandatory. Wearing masks is a strict recommendation of the Institute of Public Health and the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports, but the Ministry cannot return from school any child who does not wear a mask, due to their legal right to education.

New Methodology for assessing the quality of educational work in institutions, designed in cooperation with Bureau for Educational Services (it is in charge of all levels of pre-university general education) was adopted in December 2021. The major change is that evaluations of VET and so-called "mixed" schools (delivering both VET and general education programmes) will be conducted by joint teams of VET Centre and BES evaluators) as these schools have so far been a subject to independent school evaluations by both VET Centre and BES. The quality framework is common for all the primary and secondary schools but there are 13 quality indicators typical for VET schools, based on EQAVET framework. Due to COVID 19 the number of regular school evaluations has been reduced.
In order to create a wider pool of external school evaluators for VET schools, criteria for their selection were designed and an open call for external associates - evaluators was issued. There are about 70 applicants who have met the eligibility criteria and their training is underway. The QA department within VET Centre is also working on clarifying and describing the quality indicators defined by the new methodology.

The provisions of the Law on Gymnasium and the Law on Vocational Education have been amended, which refers to the weekly norm of teacher classes.