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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Early childhood and school education funding


3.Funding in Education

3.1Early childhood and school education funding

Last update: 16 February 2024

Pre unviersity system funding

As explained in respective chapters pre-unviersity system in Albania consists of levels from pre-school education to upper secondary education (including the last). The below subchapters describe fundings in relation to:  Early childhood education and care; primary and lower secondary education and upper secondary education. Another section describes funding modalities for Higher education.  

Early childhood education

The pre-school education system in Albania is governed and financed in a decentralized manner. Local self-government units (Municipalities) are responsible for the administration of the preschool education system in kindergartens and nurseries, under the governance of two different central government institutions:

  • The Ministry of Health and Social Protection (MHSP) governs pre-school for the age group 0–3 years (nurseries) 

  • The Ministry of Education and Sports governs pre-school for the age group of 3–6 years (kindergartens and prep-classes). 

  • Municipalities, through public funds (unconditional transfer grants from state budget and with funds from their own budget) finance the following: expenses for teaching staff of pre-school education institutions (nurseries and kindergarten); expenses for non-teaching staff of education institutions providing services; current expensesfor administration and functioning of education institutions; capital investment expenses, buildings and equipment.

    The financing of private pre-school education institutions is done by private funds. No budgetary funds are directed to finance these institutions in Albania. 

Primary and secondary education

The law on pre-university education states that funding of pre-university education institutions at all levels of pre-university education system (pre-school education, basic education and upper secondary education) is done by the following sources. State budgets, incomes of local governance units, sponsorships and donations, incomes from other education systems.

Public pre-university education institutions are funded by the above mentioned sources. Within the context of current legislation funding from state budget is planned based on the ‘per student’ formula based on specific indicators of education levels and conditions of public higher education institutions. The basic local governance unit is tasked with the continuous improvement of infrastructure of pre-university institutions for all public higher education institutions. Construction or reconstruction of public pre-university education institutions is funded by State Budget Funds approved by the Ministry or funds from unconditioned transfers or by the incomes of Local governance units. Meanwhile funds for maintenance of facilities/building of pre-university education are included in own sources of local governance units. Each local governance unit establishes the funding level allocated for this function by its own budget. 

Financial Autonomy and Control

There is no special financial autonomy granted to pre-unversity public education institutions including those in charge for early education and care. Public early education and care institutions are funded by state budget. Chreces are under local governance units, responsibility while kindergartens and preparatory classes are under joint responsibility of MES and LGU. Other public pre-university education institutions are funded by state budget. Private pre-university education institutions are mainly funded from the incomes they generate.

Fees within Public Education

Based on the law on pre-university education for pre-university education all institutions of basic and secondary education (schools, high schools) offer their service free of charge. Nevertheless, the above-mentioned law does not include pre-school education but it refers only to children from 6 to 16 years old. The law makes no reference for pre-school education (early childhood education and care). Other bylaws predict the objectives for the functioning of kindergartens and chreches that serve respectively to children from 3 to six years old but they do not make reference for free of charge services. Therefore in full day kindergartens tariffs are applied only for the meals consumed by children. This expenditure is supported by subsidies from local governance units for certain social groups.

Financial Support for Learners' Families

Early education and care

Children that belong to Roma or Egyptian communities and those with limited abilities conduct early education and care free of charge in respective early education and care similarly with other children. There is no support granted to learners’ families in respect of education.

Primary and secondary education

Within the framework of policies for quality and inclusiveness in education, the situation of education of Roma children is considered as a priority. Therefore, the Ministry of Education and  Sports  has its tasks and responsibilities for implementing the measures defined in the respective strategy.

Roma children in obligatory education (does not include early childhood education and care) receive their texts free of charge in the schools where they study. Moreover based on yearly local units decision they receive also free of charge meals.

Financial Support for Families of Pupils with Special Educational Needs

There is no specific financial support guaranteed to families of pupils with special needs. Instead pupils with special needs of certain categories benefit certain forms of financial support as described below.

The law on pre-university education states all details of education of children with limited abilities. Based on this law children with limited abilities at all levels of pre-university education are guaranteed education in one of the following institutions: special schools and normal schools. The children and their parents choose the institution in which they want to educate their child. Pupils with limited abilities that are not able to go to school can follow education at home conditions. 

According to Article 30 of the law for child protection the children with limited abilities exercise the right for free of charge special care offered by responsible state authorities. Moreover, the law states that in principle special care is exercised to guarantee to special needs children access in education training, healthcare, preparation for employment and entertainment in order to enable him/her to develop its individual chances and to enable for its successful integration in social, cultural and spiritual life. 

Laws for specific categories of special needs persons also enable specific provisions regarding the funding of their education. For instance, people with seeing difficulties are guaranteed free of charge education and provides them with payments specified by Decision of Council of Ministers during the duration of their studies. The law on paraplegic and tetraplegic persons also offers facilities for this category but only in regard to higher education. 

Providing an inclusive and qualitative education for people with disabilities in education, as a priority of the education system, is supported by the Strategy on education 2021 2026.  

Within the framework of inclusive education policies, the Instruction no. 38, dated 07.10.2024"On the criteria of assistant teachers in public institutions of pre-university education" is already in place. Based on this instruction, in 2023 2024 the number of asssitant teachers was subsequently increased and was almost doubled compared to previous years.

The Albanian government has officially recognized Albanian sign language and has conducted studies to improve the education of deaf people and children.

MES policies are focused on:

  • An accurate evaluation of educational needs of children with special needs;
  •  Increase the quality of educational services for children with special needs;
  • Fulfilling needs of disabled children with assistant teachers in mainstream schools, aiming at integration of these children in mainstream schools;
  • Training assistant teachers to work with disabled children and training all teachers on inclusion;
  • Improving education for deaf children by improving the institution’s infrastructure and transforming it into a resource centre, extending education duration by providing vocational education, improved training for the institution's teachers;
  • Providing sign language assistants and translators of this language.
  • Transformation of schools into resource centers.

Private Education

Private pre-university education institutions are not funded by the Ministry of Education.