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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Early childhood and school education funding


3.Funding in Education

3.1Early childhood and school education funding

Last update: 27 November 2023

Early childhood education

The current law on pre-university education system calls for free and mandatory education for children 6-16 years old. This law makes no reference regarding funding of early education and care. Other laws establish goals provide for the functioning of nurseries serving children 0-3 and preschools for children 3-6, but do not mandate free services. At kindergarten and chreces level fees are applied only for meal. This expense is subsidized by local governance units for certain categories. [1]

Primary and secondary education

The law on pre-university education states that funding of pre-university education institutions at all levels of pre-university education system (pre-school education, basic education and upper secondary education) is done by the following sources. State budgets, incomes of local governance units, sponsorships and donations, incomes from other education systems.[2]

Public pre-university education institutions are funded by the above mentioned sources. Within the context of current legislation funding from state budget is planned based on the ‘per student’ formula based on specific indicators of education levels and conditions of public higher education institutions. The basic local governance unit is tasked with the continuous improvement of infrastructure of pre-university institutions for all public higher education institutions. Construction or reconstruction of public pre-university education institutions is funded by State Budget Funds approved by the Ministry or funds from unconditioned transfers or by the incomes of Local governance units. Meanwhile funds for maintenance of facilities/building of pre-university education are included in own sources of local governance units. Each local governance unit establishes the funding level allocated for this function by its own budget. [3]

Financial Autonomy and Control

There is no special financial autonomy granted to pre-university education institutions including those in charge for early education and care. Public early education and care institutions are funded by state budget. Chreces are under local governance units, responsibility while kindergartens and preparatory classes are under joint responsibility of MES and LGU. Other public pre-university education institutions are funded by state budget. Private pre-university education institutions are mainly funded from the incomes they generate.

Fees within Public Education

Based on the law on pre-university education for pre-university education all institutions of basic and secondary education (schools, high schools) offer their service free of charge. Nevertheless, the above-mentioned law does not include pre-school education but it refers only to children from 6 to 16 years old. The law makes no reference for pre-school education (early childhood education and care). Other bylaws predict the objectives for the functioning of kindergartens and chreches that serve respectively to children from 3 to six years old but they do not make reference for free of charge services. Therefore in full day kindergartens tariffs are applied only for the meals consumed by children. This expenditure is supported by subsidies from local governance units for certain social groups.[4]

Financial Support for Learners' Families

Early education and care

Children that belong to Roma or Egyptian communities and those with limited abilities conduct early education and care free of charge in respective early education and care similarly with other children. There is no support granted to learners’ families in respect of education.

Primary and secondary education

Within the framework of policies for quality and inclusiveness in education, the situation of education of Roma children is considered as a priority. Therefore, the Ministry of Education Sports and Youth has its tasks and responsibilities for implementing the measures defined in the National Plan for Integration of Roma and Egyptians 2016-2020.

Roma children in obligatory education (does not include early childhood education and care) receive their texts free of charge in the schools where they are registered. During school year 2015-2016, in compliance with Decision of the Council of Ministers No. 707, dated 08.28.2015 "On some amendments and additions to the Decision no. 107, dated 10.2.2010 of the Council of Ministers "On the publication, printing, distribution and sale of textbooks of the pre university education system", Egyptian children benefited also free of charge school texts. There is no support scheme granted to learner’s families regarding primary and secondary education.

Financial Support for Families of Pupils with Special Educational Needs

There is no specific financial support guaranteed to families of pupils with special needs. Instead pupils with special needs of certain categories benefit certain forms of financial support as described below.

The law on pre-university education states all details of education of children with limited abilities. Based on this law children with limited abilities at all levels of pre-university education are guaranteed education in one of the following institutions: special schools and normal schools. The children and their parents choose the institution in which they want to educate their child. Pupils with limited abilities that are not able to go to school can follow education at home conditions. [5]

According to Article 30 of the law for child protection the children with limited abilities exercise the right for free of charge special care offered by responsible state authorities. Moreover, the law states that in principle special care is exercised to guarantee to special needs children access in education training, healthcare, preparation for employment and entertainment in order to enable him/her to develop its individual chances and to enable for its successful integration in social, cultural and spiritual life. [6]

Laws for specific categories of special needs persons also enable specific provisions regarding the funding of their education. For instance, people with seeing difficulties[7] are guaranteed free of charge education and provides them with payments specified by Decision of Council of Ministers during the duration of their studies. The law on paraplegic and tetraplegic persons also offers facilities for this category but only in regard to higher education. [8]

Providing an inclusive and qualitative education for people with disabilities in education, as a priority of the education system, is supported by the Strategy for the Development of Pre-University Education (2014-2020), sectoral and cross-sectoral strategic plans and ensured by the entire legal framework. In the academic year 2016-2017, 3252 disabled children were enrolled in mainstream schools, 114 of them children with Down syndrome, while in special education schools 560 pupils were enrolled, including the Institution of Blind Pupils and the Institution of Deaf Pupils.

The following data on disabled children registered 2016-2017 in mainstream and special schools divided by class/age, gender and disability categories are as follows:

  • Pre-school education 371 students with special needs;

  • Primary education 1663 students with special needs;

  • In the lower secondary education 940 students with special needs;

  • Upper secondary education 278 students with special needs;

  • In 7 special schools 584 other students with special needs.

Within the framework of inclusive education policies, the Instruction no. 38, dated 07.10.2014 "On the criteria of assistant teachers in public institutions of pre-university education" is already in place. Based on this instruction, in 2015-2016 115 assistant teachers (77% more than the previous year) were assigned in classes and schools with disabled children, 310 assistant teachers were appointed in 2016-2017, almost the triple amount compared to 2015-2016.

In cooperation with the Institute of Blind Pupils, assistant teachers of DAR Durrës, Elbasan, Vlora and Lezha were trained. The Albanian government has officially recognized Albanian sign language and has conducted studies to improve the education of deaf people and children.

MESY policies are focused on:

  • An accurate evaluation of educational needs of children with special needs;

  •  Increase the quality of educational services for children with special needs;

  • Fulfilling needs of disabled children with assistant teachers in mainstream schools, aiming at integration of these children in mainstream schools;

  • Training assistant teachers to work with disabled children and training all teachers on inclusion;

  • Improving education for deaf children by improving the institution’s infrastructure and transforming it into a resource centre, extending education duration by providing vocational education, improved training for the institution's teachers;

  • Providing sign language assistants and translators of this language.

Private Education

Private pre-university education institutions are funded by the Ministry of Education if they are not for profit and if they have been operating for five consequent years. State support for private pre-university education is differentiated based on their ranking in national exams of basic education, ranking in State Matura testes and ranking in other national and international tests. [9]

[1] Law No. 69/2012 “For pre-university education system in the Republic of Albania, Article 43.[Ligj nr.69/2012, “Për sistemin e Arsimit Parauniversitar në Republikën e Shqipërisë”, Article 37

[2] Law No. 69/2012 “For pre-university education system in the Republic of Albania, Article 30.[Ligj nr.69/2012, “Për sistemin e Arsimit Parauniversitar në Republikën e Shqipërisë”, neni 37], 37

[3] Ibidem


[5] Law No. 69/2012 “For pre-university education system in the Republic of Albania, Chapter IX .[Ligj nr.69/2012, “Për sistemin e Arsimit Parauniversitar në Republikën e Shqipërisë”,Kreu IX],

[6] Law No.10 347, dated 4.11. 2010 “For protection of child rights”, Article 30,  [Ligj Nr. 10. 347 datë 4.11.2010 “Për Mbrojtjen e të Drejtave të Fëmijës, Neni 30]

[7] Law No.8098, dated 28.3.1996  “On the statute of blind”, Article 8, [Ligj Nr.8098, datë 29.3.1996 “Për statusin e të verbrit”, Neni 8]

[8] Ligj Nr. 8626, datë22.06.2000 “Statusi i individit tetraplegjik dhe paraplegjik.”

[9]Ibidem, Article 39