This chapter provides a thematic and chronological overview of national reforms and policy developments since 2021.
The introduction of the chapter describes the overall education strategy and the key objectives across the whole education system. It also looks at how the education reform process is organised and who are the main actors in the decision-making process.
The section on ongoing reforms and policy developments groups reforms in the following broad thematic areas that largely correspond to education levels:
- Early childhood education and care
- School education
- VET and adult learning
- Higher education
- Transversal skills and employability
Inside each thematic area, reforms are organised chronologically. The most recent reforms are described first.
Overall National Education Strategy and Key Objectives
Following the completion of the "Pre university Education system 2014-2020" the new "Strategy on Education 2021-2026" was adopted. This strategy for the first time includes all cycles of education starting from pre-school education to higher education. The vision of the strategy is to offer quality education based on inclusive principles and lifelong learning that enables for potential development of the individual that enables for potential development of the individual by contributing to the personal welfare of the last as well as in strengthening of democracy and integration of the country to the European Union.
The strategy is composed by 4 policy aims: The first one relates to pre-university education and aims to create pre-university education that is inclusive, qualitative and offered on equal basis that creates the conditions for all pupils to develop knowledge, skills stances and values conform the requests of a democratic society in order for them to be able to face the life challenges and to contribute to personal and social welfare.
Specific objectives that are related to this policy objective target guarantee of inclusiveness and participation in preparatory classes and obligatory education and upper secondary education.; secure social, emotional and physical welfare of all students in order to reduce droppout and to enable for pupils to reach their full potential; creation of chances for qualitative formation of teachers and improvement of their career advancement system to enable for excellent teaching levels; full development of the competence based curricula through effective teaching and by using high tech resources and communication tools in ICT area.
The second policy aim relates to efficient management of education system conform requests of a democratic society, to face in a constructive ways the life challenges and to contribute in construction of personal ans society welfare. This aim includes objectives related to increase of performance at school level through professional management structures and quality assurance structure; guarantee of system performance through the building of an inclusive evaluation structure and its implementation.
Higher education is included under policy aim C and includes seven specific objectives related to increase of quality in higher education, modernization of higher education infrastructure and application of high standards for programme evaluation, encouragement of excellence in teaching and scientific research; better connection between education and labor market; guarantee of transparency and accountability in higher education; improvement of socio-economic status of students; internationalziation of higher education and deeper integration into European Higher Education area; advancement of TIC infrastructure and services in public higher education institutions.
Regarding the Vocational Educational and Training and Adult Learning a new Law has passed and a Strategy is in place. The Law defines the mission and the main objectives of the VET System in compliance with the overall educational system and the labor market, as well as fundamental rules of delivery, governance, financing and management of vocational education and training (VET). It also defines the roles and responsibilities of the public authorities and other subjects, responsible for planning, implementation and monitoring aspects of the VET.
The purpose of the law is to create and develop a unified VET system that is able to response to socioeconomic and technology changes, in compliance with local and global labour market needs, to create sustainable mechanisms of quality assurance in vocational education institutions in compliance with EU standards and to ensure the equal opportunities for all individuals who want to attend VET studi
Overview of the educational process and drivers
The Ministry of Education and Sports, based on the responsibilities set by the Council of Ministers, is responsible for the management of: pre-university education, higher education, scientific research, sports and youth. In this chapter only ministry responsibilites related to education (including pre-university education and higher education are covered.
The pre-university education system at the central level is managed by the Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth, and at the local level by the Local Education Units. The Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth and Local Education Units are respectively supported and consulted by the forums of the National Council for Pre-University Education and the National Council for Pre-University Education, which operates under the Regional level.
Through the educational institutions of the pre-university education system, the service of education is provided for the levels of:
- Preschool Education [Arsimi parashkollor],
- Basic Education [Arsimi Baze, which includes Primary Education and Lower Secondary Education.
- UPpper secondary education, which includes general education (Gymnasium), secondary oriented education and vocational education.
The education service at the levels of Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary Education is offered in the form of full-time and part-time study. The form of distance education is stipulated in the law on the pre-university education system, but has not been implemented.
Quality assurance in the pre-university education system is facilitated through:
- Self-evaluation methodology, which is exercised by the schools,
- Monitoring process, which is exercises conducted by Local Education Units,
- By inspection of the quality of service, which is provided by the State Inspectorate of Education.
The professional development of teachers is realized based on the needs of the teachers and is facilitated through:
- Professional Development,
- Training, Professional Networks,
- Consultancy and
- Short and Long Term Courses.
Trainings are conducted according to the "Request-Offer" system. Training programs are accredited by the Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth and can be provided by public or private institutions / operators.
In the area of Vocational Education and Training (VET), the MESY divides its competences with the Ministry of Finance and Economy (MFE). Key institutions that rule the VET system include:
- The Ministry of Finance (MF)
- The Ministry of Education and Sports (MES)
- The National Agency of Vocational Education and Training and Qualifications (NAVETQ)
Based on the last Decision of Council of Ministers the MF has as its mission amongst others also the guarantee of constitutional rights for vocational education and training (VET). The same act states that MF exercises its competences in the VET area.
In the area of VET, MES defines the general criteria for the qualification and certification of the general teachers in vocational education in cooperation with the Minister responsible for VET, drafts and implements policies for the professional development of general teachers, develops tests and certifications of pupils in VET schools in cooperation with the ministry responsible for VET defines the curricula of general subjects, defines the criteria for employment qualifications and certification of teachers of general culture.
The National Agency for Vocational Education and Training and Qualifications (NAVETQ) is a dependent institution of the Ministry of Finance. Since the start of its activity the NAVETQ has acted as public institution that enables expertise in the issues of VET development and lifelong learning, as well as has an important role in the guarantee of the quality of the VET offer. NAVETQ is responsible for the development of vocational qualifications (ISCED levels 2 to 5)
Higher education is provided in accordance with the law on higher education and scientific research
Higher education and scientific research, structurally, is organized and managed by the following institions/organs:
- Ministry responsible for education [Ministri përgjegjës për Arsimin]
- The Council for Higher Education and Scientific Research [Këshilli i Arsimit të Lartë dhe Kërkimit Shkencor]
- Educational Services Center [Qendra për Shërbimet Arsimore]
- National Agency for the Financing of Higher Education [Agjencia Kombëtare për Financimin e Arsimit të Lartë]
- National Agency for Scientific Research and Innovation [Agjencia Kombëtare për Kërkim Shkencor dhe Inovacion]
- Quality Assurance Agency in Higher Education [Agjencia Kombëtare për Cilësinë në Arsimin e Lartë] , near which the Accreditation Board, [Bordi i Akreditimit] is organized and functions, with the main function accreditation of higher education institutions and study programs.