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Teaching and learning in general upper secondary education

Montenegro

6.Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Education

6.2Teaching and learning in general upper secondary education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Curriculum, subjects and number of periods

Law on Gymnasium prescribes performing instruction in accordance with curriculum. Compulsory subjects, compulsory elective subjects and compulsory elective activities are covered in the curriculum.

Theoretical instruction of compulsory subjects is conducted with students of one or several classes of the same grade. Organisation and the performance of theoretical instruction of compulsory elective subjects are defined by gymnasium. The list and the contents of compulsory elective subjects are adopted by the Ministry of Education following the proposal of the National Council for Education. Exercises, as practical application of the adopted theoretical contents, are carried out in groups and may be implemented in block schedule classes. Compulsory elective activities may be carried out inside and outside gymnasium. Subjects may be studied in standard (basic) and upper level, in accordance with the curriculum.

In accordance with the General Law on Education, curricula are composed of general and special part.

The general part includes:

  1. title of the subject;
  2. title of the level of education;
  3. teaching plan (subjects and modules and their presence, student load and number of credit points for certain subjects and modules and total number of periods for all forms of teaching);
  4. goals of the curriculum;
  5. conditions for enrolment, i.e. inclusion in the curriculum;
  6. duration of education (including credit valuation);
  7. compulsory methods of testing and assessment of students;
  8. conditions for progression and completion of education;
  9. level of education, i.e. professional qualification being acquired;
  10.  conditions for the completion of certain parts of the curriculum, i.e. modules.

The special part includes:

  1. syllabuses, i.e. catalogues of knowledge for the subject (with subject objectives, contents and standards of knowledge and learning outcomes, division of classes into groups, teaching resources, general list of literature, financial conditions for performing teaching, connections between subjects);
  2. examination catalogues;
  3. manner of adjusting the syllabuses for students with special educational needs;
  4. manner of adjusting the syllabuses for adult education;
  5. manner of implementing the curriculum (for vocational education, special part includes the scope and content of practical education implemented at employer’s premises);
  6. other issues significant for the implementation of the curriculum.

Publicly valid curricula are adopted by the Ministry of Education following the proposal of the National Council for Education. The general part of publicly valid curricula is determined by the Ministry, on the proposal of the National Council.

The teaching plan according to general secondary education curriculum:

 

1st grade

2nd grade

3rd grade

4th grade

stan

dard

matura

standard

 

per week

per year

per week

per year

per week

per year

per week

per year

compulsory subjects

                   

Montenegrin – Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian language and literature

4

140

4

140

4

140

4

128

548

548

Mathematics

4

140

4

140

4

140

4

128

548

548

First foreign language

3

105

3

105

3

105

3

96

411

411

Second foreign language

2

70

2

70

2

70

3

96

306

306

History

2

70

2

70

2

70

2

64

274

274

Physical education

2

70

2

70

2

70

2

64

274

 

Music arts

1

35

-->

         

35

140

Visual arts

 

<--

1

35

       

35

140

Latin

       

2

70

   

70

140

Geography

2

70

2

70

       

140

210

Biology

2

70

2

70

2

70

2

64

274

274

Chemistry

2

70

2

70

2

70

2

64

274

274

Physics

2

70

2

70

2

70

2

64

274

274

Psychology

 

 

2

70

 

 

 

 

70

140

Sociology

 

 

 

 

2

70

 

 

70

140

Philosophy

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

64

64

140

ICT

2

70

 

 

 

 

 

 

70

140

TOTAL

(compulsory subjects)

28

 

28

 

27

 

26

 

3737

4207

Compulsory elective subjects

3

105

3

105

4

140

4

128

478

 

Total (compulsory and elective subjects)

31

 

31

 

31

 

30

 

 

 

Compulsory elective contents

1+1

35+35

1+1

35+35

1+1

35+35

1(1)

30

240

 

TOTAL (compulsory and elective subjects, compulsory elective contents)

33

 

33

 

33

 

31

 

 

 

Number of working weeks

 

36

 

36

 

36

 

33

4455

 

 

Grades and number of periods in a week for compulsory elective subjects for supplementing the matura standard

Compulsory elective subject for supplementing the matura standard

3rd grade

4th grade

Compulsory subject the matura standard of which is being supplemented

Music – my language

2

2

Musical Arts

Art and visual communications

2

2

Visual Arts

Syntax of Latin language

0

3

Latin

Tourism geography of Montenegro

2

-->

Geography

Human genetics

0

1

Biology

Biochemistry

0

1

Chemistry

Selected chapters of physics

0

1

Physics

Individual in a group

2

-->

Psychology

Sociology of culture

2

-->

Sociology

Logics

2

-->

Philosophy

Ethics

0

2

Algorithms and programming

3

-->

ICT

 

The curriculum of general secondary education may be downloaded here.

Teaching Methods and Teaching Materials

In accordance with the Law on Gymnasium, educational work in gymnasiums includes:

  1. theoretical teaching and exercises for compulsory subjects and compulsory elective subjects;
  2. compulsory elective activities (additional, supplementary and optional courses, excursions, field trips, etc.);
  3. monitoring student achievements, testing and assessment;
  4. exams;
  5. cultural and public activities;
  6. analysis of students’ performance and conduct;
  7. other forms of educational work significant for gymnasium.

Teachers are provided with professional autonomy in organising classes, applying teaching methods, selecting forms of work with students, as well as in selecting tasks they set before their students within the defined curriculum.

The General Law on Education prescribes that an institution that carries out publicly valid educational programs should use the textbooks and teaching materials which have been approved by the National Council for Education. Private institutions are obliged to use textbooks approved by the National Council for Education only for compulsory subjects defined by the educational program, i.e. by law. Exceptionally, in case there are no textbooks approved in accordance with law, the institution may use the textbooks envisaged by the programme. The preparation of textbooks is regulated by the Law on Publishing and the Rulebook on procedure for obtaining, evaluating, approving and preparing textbooks and teaching materials.

The preparation of a textbook manuscript includes: collecting manuscripts, providing expert review on it, selecting a manuscript and proposing that it be approved for publication and use. There are two methods in which a manuscript can be collected: through call for proposals and by direct selection of the author. Priority is given to the call for proposals as a method that encourages potential authors to work and places them in equal position, which is regulated by the rulebooks on the selection of textbook manuscripts and textbook literature.

Each textbook manuscript requires an expert review. The review is provided by a review panel made up of five members, namely two scientific workers, school counsellor, psychologist and the subject teacher, in case of textbooks for primary school, i.e. two scientific workers and two subject teachers in case of approving textbooks for general gymnasium. Members of the review panel are selected from the List of Reviewers, established by the National Council for Education.