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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Guidance and counselling in early childhood and school education


12.Educational support and guidance

12.4Guidance and counselling in early childhood and school education

Last update: 28 March 2024

Professional Support and Guidance

At schools, children are provided with professional support by professional associates: school counsellor, psychologist, special education teachers. The professional service (school counsellor, psychologist, special education teacher) takes part in designing school activities, work plans, conducts individual and group models of work (interviews, counselling, workshops, etc.), participates in preventive activities with and for students in all areas significant for child development, monitors the child’s achievements, context, circumstances, dynamics in which they grow up. Also, for children with special educational needs the professional service takes part in the designing, implementing and monitoring IDEP, provides support for the child (individually/in group); advises teachers and parents; assists in the preparation of teaching materials and materials for knowledge testing; defines and monitors the work of assistants, etc.

Psychological Counselling

Norms for employment of psychologists indicate that a school should have at least 1000 students to be entitled to engage a psychologist.

Psychologist plays an important role in counselling students, parents and teachers.

Counselling is conducted in all areas of a child’s life and aims to contribute to his/her development and academic achievement. Counselling is focused on strengthening one’s own capacities for learning and work, as well as social relations, overcoming crisis situations (stress, trauma, challenges), doubt about the existence of violence and abuse.

Counselling also involves parents with the aim of creating an environment for growth and development of children, providing support in family challenging situations, giving instructions for the child’s advancement, etc.

Career Guidance

Career guidance is carried out by professional associates, as well as by teachers. This type of guidance is aimed at identifying priorities, measures and activities that will support all individuals (young people and adults) to recognize and develop their abilities, develop the knowledge and skills they need for lifelong career guidance in line with their abilities, interests, qualities and the labour market needs. Guidance is conducted through thematic workshops, individual interviews (psychologist), needs assessment, abilities, skills and interests (psychologist). Also, career guidance provides information on employment opportunities, situation on the labour market and potential employers, information on secondary school education programmes and enrolment requirements, as well as information on occupations and their requirements, compliance of personal characteristics with these requirements etc. Career guidance involves cooperation with Centres for Information and Professional Counselling. These centres have been organized in the municipalities of Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Herceg Novi, Niksic, Mojkovac, Pljevlja, Podgorica.

For children with special educational needs, a pattern for Individual Transition Plan (ITP-1, ITP-2, ITP-3) has been designed which refers to professional orientation, guidance and transition, hence including the career guidance. Details have been provided in 12.8.

In cooperation with the European Training Foundation (ETF) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), a draft "National Career Development Support System Review" was prepared. Also, a methodological framework for monitoring high school graduates is being prepared