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Teaching and learning in upper secondary education

Czechia

6.Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education

6.2Teaching and learning in upper secondary education

Last update: 19 June 2024

Curriculum, subjects, number of hours

According to the new Education Act, the teaching is based on the curricular documents of two levels – framework education programmes (hereafter, FEP), issued by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, and school education programmes (hereafter, SEP), prepared by individual schools.

The development of the FEP is closely connected to the reform of the system of fields. The number of fields was significantly reduced (for example: The original 90 educational fields focused on individual aspects of business and management or different economic sectors were replaced by one field – Economy and business). During this reduction, the links between the fields and the labour market as well as the National Qualifications Framework were taken into account. The new fields have wider specialisation and there is one FEP prepared for each of them. The schools can specialise themselves and can create more specialisations within the given field in the SEP.

 

The study fields are subdivided into several categories:

Courses of the secondary education with the Maturita examination (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou) (ISCED 344 and 354) include:

  • K category – general courses completed by the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška) – four-year general schools (ISCED 344) and multi-year general schools (ISCED 244+344)
  • M category – traditional vocational courses completed by the Maturita examination (ISCED 354)
  • the M category also includes courses of the lyceum branch (lyceum), which provide vocational education with higher proportion of general education and prepare primarily to tertiary education in given specialisation (ISCED 344): Technical Lyceum, Economics Lyceum, Pedagogical Lyceum, Health Care Lyceum, Science Lyceum, Combined Lyceum, Military lyceum
  • L category – courses, where practical training is part of the education (ISCED 354)

Courses of the secondary education with the VET certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem) (ISCED 353) include:

  • H category – three-year vocational courses
  • E category – less demanding two- or three-year vocational courses intended primarily for pupils with special educational needs (e.g. including pupils who ended the compulsory school attendance in lower than 9th year of basic school)

Courses of the secondary education (střední vzdělání) include:

  • J category (ISCED 353) – intellectually less demanding two-year vocational courses
  • C category (ISCED 253) – one-year and two-year practical school courses (praktická škola), intended for pupils with moderate to severe mental disabilities, autism or multiple disabilities

In international comparisons the fields of study of lyceums are also considered as general education. The concept of framework education programmes for the fields of study of lyceums corresponds to vocational education. Thus information on the fields of study of lyceums is included in the section Vocational education.

General education

The Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education (FEP SGE) designed for four-year general secondary schools (gymnázia) and upper level of multi-year general secondary schools (víceletá gymnázia) (ISCED 344), was published in August 2007. On the basis of this programme, each school prepared its own school education programme (SEP) and began to teach according to it, starting with the first grades from 2009/10 at the latest. At present, the instruction is carried out according to the SEPs in all grades. At the same time, the number of secondary general courses has been reduced. The SEP should respect the needs of the school and its pupils and enable the school to create its own specialisation.

Lower level of multi-year general secondary schools

For the lower level of multi-year general secondary schools (ISCED 244), the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE) is the binding document. Nevertheless, the multi-year general secondary schools have the possibility to create one school education programme for the whole period of six or eight years of education, or they can create two separate SEPs, one for the lower and one for the upper level of education.

Sports training secondary general schools

Apart from the general secondary school branch, another branch of general secondary schools remained – the Sports Training Secondary General Schools (gymnázia se sportovní přípravou). The general part of the Framework Education Programme for Sports Training Secondary General Schools (FEP STSGS). issued in 2007, is identical with the Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education. The specific part has been prepared in collaboration with the Association of School Heads of Sports Training Secondary General Schools (Asociace ředitelů gymnázií se sportovní přípravou). In total, 64 teaching hours are devoted to physical education and sports training which means that the total compulsory number of teaching hours during studies is 184 and concurrently the number of lessons per week in one grade is 46. If schools provide education in an eight- or six-year programme, education at lower level is governed by the FEP BE.

Bilingual general secondary schools

The new separate Framework Education Programme for Bilingual Secondary General School (FEP BSGS) is binding for six-year bilingual general secondary schools (dvojjazyčná gymnázia) from 2016/17.

Lyceum fields

In international comparisons, the lyceum fields of study are considered as being part of general education. Since the concept of framework education programmes for lyceum fields of study corresponds to vocational education, details on them are included in the section Vocational education.

Revision of framework education programmes

With effect from 1 September 2022, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports issued an update of FEP SGE and FEP STSGS, which established a new key "digital competence" and replaced the educational area Informatics and information and communication technology by Informatics; the number of hours has not been changed. In the same year, the (FEP BSGS) was modified in a similar way, where the time allocation for Informatics was increased by one hour (and disposable teaching hours were reduced). At the lower level of multi-year secondary general school, a similar change was already introduced in 2021, while the time allocation for various subjects was also affected here. In all fields at secondary general schools, both at the lower and upper level, schools must start teaching according to the SEP modified in accordance with the above changes from the 2025/26 school year at the latest.

Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education

The Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education (FEP SGE) defines:

  • the concept and objectives of secondary general education
  • key competences which should be acquired by pupils
  • educational areas and cross-curricular themes
  • a framework curriculum timetable
  • rules to design the school education programme (SEP)
  • conditions of education of pupils with special educational needs (i.e. pupils who for the fulfilment of their educational opportunities or for exercising or using their rights on the equal basis with others need provision of supporting measures – for more information see Special Care within the Mainstream Education)
  • conditions of education of exceptionally gifted pupils
  • material, personnel and educational-psychological conditions, conditions of safety and mental hygiene and manual labour hygiene, psycho-social conditions and organisational and management conditions of secondary general education

 

Key competencies

  • learning competence
  • problem solving competence
  • communication competence
  • social and personal competence
  • civic competence
  • entrepreneurship competence
  • digital competence

 

Educational areas

Each of the eight educational areas (see framework curriculum timetable for secondary general schools) has its characteristic, objectives and content of education (expected outcomes and subject matter). Each area is divided into one or more educational courses. For cross-curricular themes the characteristic, the contribution to pupil's personal development and the thematic fields are set. The main emphasis is on educational outcomes. The expected pupils' key competencies are now defined. Close attention is also paid to pupils' systems of values and their personal and social development, which the cross-curricular themes should primarily contribute to.

 

Cross-curricular themes

  • Personal and social education
  • Education towards thinking in the European and global contexts
  • Multicultural education
  • Environmental education
  • Media studies

 

Framework Curriculum Timetable for General Secondary Schools

Educational area Educational field Total number of teaching hours during the study
Language and language communication Czech language and literature 12 obligatory in each grade
Foreign language 11) 12 obligatory in each grade
Foreign language 21) 12 obligatory in each grade
Mathematics and its applications 10 obligatory in grades 1 to 3
People and nature
 
Physics 36 obligatory in grades 1 to 2
Chemistry
Biology
Geography2)
Geology
People and society Civic and social science essentials
History
Geography2)
People and the world of work X during grades 1 to 43)
Art and Culture Music  44) obligatory in grades 1 and 2
Fine arts
People and their health Physical education 8 obligatory in each grade
Health education X during grades 1 to 43)
Information and communication technology (Informatics) 4 during grades 1 to 4
Optional educational activities 85) obligatory in grades 3 and 4
Cross-curricular themes X during grades 1 to 43), 7)
Disposable teaching hours 266) fully in discretion of school head
Total compulsory number of teaching hours 132  

Comments:

X – the number of teaching hours is stipulated by the SEP

  1. One of the foreign languages must be English.
  2. Due to its nature, Geography is included in the list of fields of both educational areas – People and nature and People and society.
  3. Content of educational area (field) has to be provided during this period, and the details are stipulated in the SEP.
  4. The offer must be such that pupils on the basis of their own choice will have the opportunity to acquire the full range of content of at least one of the fields, including the content of the integrated topic, Art production and communication.
  5. Teaching hours intended for optional subjects.
  6. All teaching hours must be used. They are intended for implementation of cross-curricular themes, for inclusion of other subjects, for the school's specialisation, for increasing the number of lessons for individual educational areas (fields).
  7. All thematic fields of cross-curricular themes must be included but the depth at which they are taught is decided by the school head.

The number of lessons per week in each grade must be between 27 and 35. The minimum number of lessons per study is 132 lessons, although the school can increase it up to 140 lessons. Any lessons over and above the set 132 are not covered from the State Budget.

(The changes as part of the RVP revision, which schools must implement from the 2025/26 school year at the latest, are shown in italics.)

 

School education programmes in secondary general education

A school creates the school education programme (SEP) on the basis of the Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education, or possibly Framework Education Programme for Sports Training Secondary General Schools, and legislation in force. During this preparation, the pupils' needs and condition of the school have to be respected, the legal requirements of parents, possibly of the founder and of the region, have to be taken into consideration. The school head is responsible for the development of the SEP and its implementation, and teachers participate in the preparation of individual parts and take part in decision-making. The school council (školská rada) expresses an opinion on the proposed SEP and its implementation and approves the way through which pupils are assessed. The content of the SEP and its conformity with the framework education programme (FEP) are evaluated by the Czech School Inspectorate. The SEP must be made publicly available.

In addition to the identification data, every SEP must include:

  • The characteristics of the school (capacity and equipment, education staff, long-term projects, international cooperation, cooperation with parents and other subjects…)
  • The characteristics of the SEP (the school's specialisation, a profile of the school leaver, organisation of admission procedure and the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška), the educational strategy, description how the teaching of pupils with special educational needs or exceptionally gifted pupils will be ensured, integration of cross-curricular themes)
  • The curriculum and the teaching programmes (educational content of subjects)
  • The rules for pupils' assessment and self-evaluation of the school

In the SEP, the school divides the content of education stated in the FEP into subjects and grades (teaching programmes) and works out the curriculum timetable in detail. It is possible to integrate topics of individual study fields and cross-curricular themes, to divide them into more subjects or to link them. Apart from the standard approach, the curriculum can be taught in the form of seminars, courses, forums or projects. The obligatory numbers of teaching hours must be respected, although the school head has a relatively high number of teaching hours at his/her disposal (20% of the total number of teaching hours), which enable the specialisation of the school or individual pupils.

Manuals and methodology for the development of SEPs, e.g. A Manual for the Development of School Education Programme of Secondary General Schools, are available on the methodological internet portal. The methodological portal is intended primarily for the support of teaching itself. It offers inspiration to teachers and enables them to share their experience and results with colleagues.

 

Foreign language learning in secondary general education

The Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education stipulates that the required level of competences attained in general secondary schools (gymnázia) is B2 for the first foreign language, and B1 for additional foreign languages according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

Some general secondary schools offer study in the separate field bilingual general secondary schools (dvojjazyčná gymnázia) (CLIL type). The teaching takes place according to the Framework Education Programme for Bilingual Secondary General School.

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports can authorise any school (based on a successful application) to teach some subjects in a foreign language.

At one general secondary school, the teaching in national minority language (in Polish) is carried out.

The Ministry of Education financed the translations of Council of Europe materials supporting the education in Romani to Czech and two Roma languages.

Under specified conditions, foreign pupils are entitled to free Czech language tuition in the form of language training groups.

Every year, the Ministry of Education allocates funds for the projects honoured by the European Language Label (The Label).

Vocational education

In the period between 2007 and 2012, the framework education programmes (FEPs) for particular vocational fields of education were gradually introduced. Based on these documents, the schools created their school education programmes (SEPs) and began to teach according to them starting with the first grades, two years after the publication of the given FEP at the latest. The development of the FEPs was closely connected to the reform of the system of fields.

As of 1 September 2020, FEPs for secondary vocational education were updated. The changes mainly concerned: 1. updating the vocational component of the FEPs, among other things due to the changing needs of the labour market, which are caused by digitisation, robotisation and modernisation of technological procedures, and 2. supplementing the link to the National Qualification System (NSK), with the aim of helping schools to be familiar with the NSQ and motivate them to create the SEPs in a way enabling pupils to expand their knowledge in another related field through professional qualification. In accordance with the modified FEPs, schools subsequently began to modify their SEPs and started education according to them, no later than 1 September 2022, starting with the first year.

From 1 September 2025, schools are obliged to teach according to the updated ICT education curriculum in all grades. The change follows the revision of the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education and the update of the Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education, as well as the dynamic development in the field of ICT and the new concept of ICT education (with a newly conceived Digital Competence and the cross-curricular theme of People and the Digital World) in the general education component of the curriculum.
 

Framework education programmes for vocational education

Framework education programmes (FEPs) define:

  • The objectives of secondary vocational education, key competencies, vocational competencies and job opportunities for school leavers
  • The curricular frameworks for individual educational areas
  • The framework curriculum timetable
  • The cross-curricular themes
  • The rules for the development of school education programme (SEP)
  • The basic conditions of the provision of the education programme (material, personal and organisational conditions and conditions of occupational safety and health protection during the educational activities)
  • The conditions of education of pupils with special educational needs and exceptionally gifted pupils
  • The application of the FEPs into the adult education

 

Key competences

  • learning competencies
  • problem solving competencies
  • communication competencies
  • social and personal competencies
  • civic competencies and cultural awareness
  • competencies required to enter the labour market and carry out business
  • mathematical competencies
  • competencies to use ICT and the ability to work with information

 

Vocational competences

Apart of key competencies, also vocational competencies of a school leaver are set in the FEPs. They express the professional profile of a school leaver and his/her eligibilities to do a profession. The competencies are specific for each field with some common competencies related to work (occupational safety, economic and ecological behaviour etc.).

 

Educational areas

  • language education and communication (in the Czech language and in a foreign language)
  • humanity and social education
  • science education (physics, chemistry, biology and ecology)
  • mathematical education
  • aesthetic education
  • education for health (including physical education)
  • education in information and communication technologies
  • economic education
  • specific vocational education (depending on the field of study)

The compulsory content of education and required outcomes of education are set for every educational area, which can include several educational contents.

 

Framework curriculum timetable

The framework curriculum timetable of the content of education sets the total number of lessons of individual educational areas per study. A part of this total number of hours are so called disposable hours, i.e. hours which may be devoted to any educational area. The time for the work practice (or VET practice or practical training) is also set.

According to the Analysis of School Education Programmes – 2007, the general component of education in the newly created SEPs for the courses with the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška) (including ICT and economic subjects for non-economic courses) makes up an average of 60 % of the curriculum for courses of the M category. The highest proportion of the general component is in lyceum courses (77 %). On the other hand, for art fields it is only 34–35 %, although the total number of lessons of these courses is higher. For courses of the category L, the general component of education makes up 56 %. The time for work practice, VET practice or practical training is not included in the above mentioned data.

In the VET courses with the VET certificate (výuční list), the general component of education in the newly created school education programmes (including ICT and economic subjects for non-economic courses) makes up 34 % of the educational content (practical training included) for the three-year courses and only 19 % for the two-year courses of category E.

 

Cross-curricular themes

The way the cross-curricular themes are included in instruction is set by the SEP. All the following themes must be included:

  • Citizen in a democratic society
  • People and the environment
  • People and the world of work
  • Information and communication technologies

School education programmes in vocational education

The school prepares the school education programme (SEP) on the basis of the framework education programmes and relevant legislation. The responsibility for its creation and implementation lies with the school head. The SEP must be available to the public. A school can prepare a separate SEP for each form of education (for day and other forms) or individual programmes can be included in the same document. On the basis of one FEP a school may prepare several SEPs for different specialisations.

In addition to the identification data the SEP includes:

  • the school leavers' profile
  • the characteristics of the SEP (i.e. the overall conception, the organisation of instruction, implementation of practical training, key competencies and cross-curricular themes, other and out-of-school activities, conditions of admission procedure, the form of the VET final examination (závěrečná zkouška) and/or profile part of the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška) and the system of care for pupils with special educational needs and exceptionally gifted pupils – mainly the rules or and process of development, implementation and evaluation of plans of educational support and individual education plans)
  • the timetable and an overview of distribution of the content of education
  • the teaching programmes or educational modules

The Manual for Development of School Education Programmes in Upper Secondary Vocational Schools (Metodika tvorby školních vzdělávacích programů SOŠ a SOU) was published in 2007. In 2012, the methodology Modular Developing of the School Education Programmes in Vocational Education (Modulární projektování školních vzdělávacích programů v odborném vzdělávání) and the two-volume methodological handbook Cross-curricular Themes in Education of Pupils of Vocational Schools (Průřezová témata ve výuce žáků odborných škol) were published. The methodological portal provides also the methodological support for the development of SEPs.

 

Foreign language learning in vocational education

The framework education programmes for the courses of category H of upper secondary education with the VET certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem) and for the courses of upper secondary education with the Maturita examination (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou) lay down the compulsory instruction of one foreign language. In the courses where regular communication with a customer (tourism, gastronomy etc.) is expected, and in the courses of lyceum the instruction of two foreign languages is required. It is recommended to include another foreign language in also other courses, but its inclusion is up to the school. The level of the acquired competences in the courses of upper secondary education with the VET certificate is set for the first foreign language at the minimum level A2+, for another foreign language at the level A1+ according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. For the courses of upper secondary education with the Maturita examination, the level of acquired competences is set for the first foreign language at the minimum level B1 and for another foreign language at the level A2.

In the framework education programmes for the courses of (upper) secondary education (střední vzdělání) and some courses of category E of upper secondary education with the VET certificate, inclusion of the foreign language into the SEP is not compulsory, it is within the authority of the school. If the school includes the foreign language in the school education programme, the time for its instruction should be at least two lessons per week. The level of the required knowledge is basic, that is to say at the level A1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

To support language learning, it is recommended working with multimedia education programmes and the internet, to create a favourable school environment, to develop and to take advantage of the offered European programmes. It is also considered useful to integrate the technical language into the instruction, for example to create conditions for the partial instruction of the topical units of the selected subjects in the foreign language, to encourage pupils to participate in the projects and competitions and to make contacts and start cooperation among schools in one's own country and abroad. It is recommended to organise technical language stays and internships to motivate pupils to learn foreign languages, for their personal experience and for their learning about life in the multicultural society. The school should create motivating conditions for the implementation of the European Language Portfolio and, by doing so, also support the positive approach of pupils towards the foreign languages acquisition.

In 2012, the National Institute of Education issued the handbook CLIL in education – how to include the foreign language into instruction (mainly for vocational education).

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports can authorise any school (based on a successful application) to teach some subjects in a foreign language.

The members of national minorities have a right to teaching in national minority language.

The Ministry of Education financed the translations into Czech and two Roma languages of Council of Europe materials supporting the education in Romani.

Under specified conditions, foreign pupils are entitled to free Czech language tuition in the form of language training groups.

Every year, the Ministry of Education allocates funds for the projects honoured by the European Language Label (The Label).

 

Example framework curriculum timetables

Example curriculum timetable of a course of upper secondary education with the Maturita examination according to FEP (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou)

Example curriculum timetable of a course n. 2641M01 Electrotechnics

Duration and form of education: 4 years, on-site courses

Educational Areas and Contents  Minimum number of teaching hours during the study
Weekly Total
Language education and communication    
- Czech language 5 160
- Foreign language 10 320
Humanity and social education 5 160
Science education 6 192
Mathematical education 12 384
Aesthetic education 5 160
Education for health 8 256
Education in information and communication technologies 6 192
Economic education 3 96
Basics of Electrotechnics 6 192
Electrotechnics 16 512
Electrotechnical measuring 8 256
Technical drawing 3 96
Disposable teaching hours 35 1 120
Total  128 4 096

The minimum number of teaching hours in individual years is 29.

Notes:

  1. The framework curriculum timetable of the educational content is the basis for the development of the SEP. The subjects created on the basis of the educational areas and contents set by the FEP are included into the SEP timetable. The educational areas and contents and the minimum number of teaching hours are binding; the observance of these in the SEP must be demonstrable.
  2. Disposable teaching hours are allocated for profiling the SEP, implementing the cross-curricular themes, strengthening the time allocation to specific educational areas and contents, supporting the interest orientation of pupils, and incorporating the teaching of another foreign language.
  3. The minimum number of teaching hours for the entire study period is 128, while the maximum is 140.
  4. Science education in the SEP is based on the A variant of the physics component and B variant of the chemistry component of the FEP. For the reason of specific needs of the course, the minimum number of weekly teaching hours for the physics component, set by the FEP, is 3.
  5. To make the education successful, it is necessary to set up conditions for acquisition of required practical skills and activities in the form of exercises (in laboratories, workshops, special classrooms, simulated companies, etc.), VET practice and practical training. Pupils can be divided into groups for the exercises during the VET practice and practical training, mainly for the reason of safety and health protection at work and sanitary requirements according to valid regulations. Content of practical activities is based on the educational areas and contents of the framework education programme.
  6. The average number of lessons in one class per week with regards to the necessary division of classes into groups is given by 52.04 for each grade. The stated figure of the indicator H is set as minimal in the process of setting the amount of financial means allocated according to the Decree on Regional per capita amounts.
  7. Work practice in the minimum extent of 4 weeks during the whole education must be included in the SEP. Work practice is organised in accordance with valid legal regulations. Apart from that, the school will include VET practice in the framework of the educational content of Electrotechnics, in the minimum extent of 8 weeks during the whole education.
  8. In the SEP, physical education must be included in every grade to the minimum extent of 2 lessons a week during the whole education. Including other sports and relaxation activities to support healthy development of pupils is recommended.
  9. The school provides conditions for improving the quality of language skills of pupils and for teaching of other foreign languages.

(Source: Framework Education Programme 2641M01 Electrotechnics.)

Example framework curriculum timetable of a course of upper secondary education with the VET certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem)

Example framework curriculum timetable of a course n. 2351H01 Mechanic (Strojní mechanik) according to the FEP.

Duration and form of education: 3 years, on-site courses

Educational Areas and Contents Minimum number of teaching hours during the study
Weekly Total
Language education and communication    
-  Czech language 3 96
-  Foreign language 6 192
Humanity and social education 3 96
Science education 4 128
Mathematical education 5 160
Aesthetic education 2 64
Education for health 3 96
Education in information and communication technologies 3 96
Economic education 2 64
Mechanical products 8 256
Producing, servicing and operation of mechanical products 39 1 248
Disposable teaching hours 18 576
Total 96 3 072

The minimum number of teaching hours in individual grades is 29.

Notes:

  1. The framework curriculum timetable of the educational content is the basis for the development of the SEP. The subjects created on the basis of the educational areas and contents set by the FEP are included into the SEP timetable. Set educational areas and contents and the minimum number of teaching hours are binding; the observance of these in the SEP must be demonstrable. The pupil – teacher of practical training ratio is set by a Government regulation.
  2. Disposable teaching hours are allocated for profiling the SEP, implementing the cross-curricular themes, strengthening the time allocation to individual educational areas and contents, supporting the interest orientation of pupils, and incorporating the teaching of another foreign language.
  3. The minimum number of teaching hours for the entire study period is 96, while the maximum is 105.
  4. For the specific needs of the course, the minimum number of weekly teaching hours for the physics component of science education, set by the FEP, is 2.
  5. To make the education successful, it is necessary to set up conditions for acquisition of required practical skills and activities in the form of exercises (in laboratories, workshops, special classrooms, simulated companies, etc.), VET practice and practical training. Pupils can be divided into groups for the exercises, VET practice and practical training, especially for the reason of safety and health protection at work and sanitary requirements according to valid regulations. The pupil – teacher of practical training ratio is set by a Government regulation.
  6. The average number of lessons in one class per week with regard to the necessary division of classes into groups of education is given by 20.9 in the theoretical part for every grade; in the practical part by 30.43 for every grade. The stated figure of the indicator H is set as minimal in the process of setting the amount of financial means allocated according to the Sections 160-162 of the Education Act and the Decree No. 492/2005 Coll., on Regional per capita amounts
  7. The content of practical activities is based on the educational areas and contents of the FEP, namely from the “Producing, servicing and operation of mechanical products” content. The minimum extent of practical activities in the form of practical training must be 35 weekly hours during the whole education.
  8. In the SEP, physical education must be included in every grade. Including other sports and relaxation activities to support healthy development of pupils is recommended. In case the education is organised in the way of weekly rotation of theoretical teaching and practical training, the number of physical education lessons must not go under 2 lessons in the week of theoretical teaching. In case of both theoretical teaching and practical training within one week, the number of physical education lessons is 2. Including suitable physical activities compensating the one-side physical load of pupils during the practical training is also advisable.
  9. The school provides conditions for improving the quality of language skills of pupils and for teaching other foreign languages according to the interest and skills of pupils.
  10. Instruction aimed at acquisition of the welding certificate is carried out in welding schools according to the ČSN norm in accordance with rules of the authorised body in the extent of a basic welding course. Acquirement of relevant certificates is not the condition for sitting the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška).

(Source: Framework Education Programme 2351H01 Mechanic.)

 

Teaching methods and materials

According to the Education Act, one of the principles of education is the wide use of effective modern teaching methods and approaches to education. Framework education programmes can set out basic methods and teaching requirements; however the choice of actual educational methods depends on the school and the teacher. Schools have to describe the total educational concept and educational strategy of individual subjects/modules in their school education programmes. The school education programme can be a standard one (classic), which means that it is based on the educational subjects and curriculum, or in the case of the vocational education also as a modular one. The use of modules is suitable mainly in the case if the school would like to contribute to individualization of the educational path of pupils and to offer different educational paths, forms and opportunities. The cross-sectional topics are also included into the education programmes. For more information, see the previous sections.

The education is theoretical and practical. In vocational courses, mainly in those designated as upper secondary education with the VET certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem), practical education forms an essential part of education.

Some of the theoretical subjects are usually taught in classrooms for practical exercises.

The practical element of instruction includes exercises, practical training, VET practice, work practice, artistic practice and sports training. It takes place at school or at the school special purpose facility (středisko praktického vyučování) (alternatively in another type of school facility) or in the workplaces of natural persons or legal entities. It is organised for relatively small groups of pupils.

  • Exercises (cvičení) are included in the basic subjects. It enhances vocational education and training of pupils. The exercises are provided in special classrooms, laboratories and workrooms or workplaces. During such exercises, the class is divided into groups. Exercise can also be included in some theoretical subjects.
  • Practical training (odborný výcvik) is based on the acquisition of basic skills, activities, and habits, on the production of products, on performance of services, or realisation of work which has a material value (usually the education is organised so as to ensure the weekly rotation of theoretical teaching and practical training).
  • VET practice (učební praxe) is carried out regularly within the instruction.
  • Work practice (odborná praxe) and artistic practice (umělecká praxe) are also carried out within the instruction, mainly in blocks and during whole weeks.

The upper secondary schools may, in accordance with curricular documents, organise skiing trips, educational-training courses, sports courses or sightseeing trips and other activities related to a school's educational role.

Alternative education paths are more often applied at the compulsory level of education. Some secondary schools use components of Waldorf pedagogy. Five secondary schools offer the Combined (Waldorf) lyceum course.

The minimum material equipment for a school is set by curricular documents, the health and safety requirements are set by the Decree on Sanitary Standards in Institutions and Facilities for Education of Children and Youth.

There are no specific requirements as to teaching aids and the school head decides on their selection, which must however be adequate to the needs of pupils. In the Bulletin of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and on the Internet, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports publishes the List of textbooks and teaching texts approved by an approval clause on the basis of an assessment as to whether they comply with the educational objectives stipulated in the Education Act, in framework education programmes and legal regulations. Schools may also use other textbooks and teaching texts unless these are contrary to these educational objectives. A school head decides on the use of textbooks and teaching texts, and the pupils cover the cost themselves (with some exceptions for pupils who fulfill compulsory education). Since 2007/08, almost all schools have been equipped with computers, and the majority of these are connected to the Internet.

There are no regulations relating to pupils' homework.