Separate schools for pupils with certain types of disadvantages
Pupils, children and students (hereinafter pupils) with special educational needs learn preferentially in mainstream schools using support measures. The act explicitly stipulates compulsory school attendance for all pupils in a catchment school (local school), i.e., a mainstream education school in the pupil's place of residence, provided the parents have not chosen another school for their child.
The Education Act in section 16, par. 9 provides for setting up independent schools or classes, or departments in conservatoires (konzervatoře) or study groups in tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) (hereinafter classes) for pupils with intellectual disabilities, visual disabilities, hearing disabilities, physical disabilities, serious developmental learning disorders (e.g. dyslexia, dyscalculia) or conduct disorder (ADD, ADHD), serious speech impediments, multiple disabilities, autism.
In conformity with the Education Act, the separate education of pupils takes place only if the school guidance and counselling facility has found that the support measures given in inclusive conditions are not sufficient to meeting the educational needs of these pupils and their right to education. For a pupil to be admitted, recommendation by a school guidance and counselling facility, a written application by the pupil's parents or guardians / an adult pupil, his/her informed consent to this type of education, and agreement that is in the best interests of the pupil are necessary. In separate education, some support measures are also used.
Separately established schools for particular types of disadvantages listed in sec. 16, par. 9 of the Education Act actively participate in the development and verification of new teaching methods and practices, collaborate on the preparation of pedagogical documents and teaching materials, provide consulting support to mainstream schools, and take part in programmes for the further education of the education staff. These schools are methodological and resource centres.
Separate pre-primary education can proceed in nursery school (mateřská škola) established specifically for children with certain type of disadvantage listed in sec. 16, par. 9 of the Education Act, and in case of children with moderate or serious intellectual disability, with concomitant multiple disabilities or autism also in preparatory stage of special basic school (přípravný stupeň základní školy speciální). Preparatory classes (přípravné třídy) can be established in mainstream basic schools in the last year before the compulsory school attendance which are intended preferably for children with the postponement of compulsory school attendance where there is a presumption that their inclusion into the preparatory class may balance out their development (they are described in the part on mainstream education).
Basic education (primary and lower secondary education) can be provided at basic schools (základní školy) established separately for pupils with certain type of disadvantage listed in sec. 16, par. 9 of the Education Act. The law makes no distinction between specific types of these schools. Pupils with moderate and serious intellectual disability, autism and concomitant multiple disabilities can be educated in special basic school (základní škola speciální). dedicated to pupils with moderate and serious intellectual disability, and concomitant multiple disabilities.
Several general and vocational fields of education are available for pupils with certain type of disadvantage listed in sec. 16, par. 9 of the Education Act at upper secondary schools (střední školy). For some fields there are programmes already adjusted at national level (especially for pupils with intellectual disability), sometimes the conditions are regulated in school education programmes. There are schools established only for these pupils as well as schools that carry out both regular and adjusted fields.
Conservatoires, which provide the secondary and tertiary art education, and tertiary professional schools, which belong to the tertiary sector of education, can also be established specifically for pupils with certain type of disadvantage listed in sec. 16, par. 9 of the Education Act. However, such schools do not exist and pupils with special educational needs are educated solely in the mainstream schools.
Schools at medical facilities
Separate education also includes nursery and basic schools at medical facilities, which are designed for ill pupils in medical facilities and who are taught in these schools if their health condition allows it. To be admitted to these schools a recommendation by the attending physician is required as well as the consent of the child's or pupil's parent or guardian. The recommendation of support measures falls within the competence of a school guidance and counselling facility. In 2021/22, there were 52 nursery schools and 66 basic schools at medical facilities.
The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports also manages the institutional education designed for children and young people who, for various reasons, cannot be educated in their biological or foster families and whose education was ordered by a court. The institutional education takes place in school facilities for institutional education and protective care, based on the Act on Institutional Education and Protective Care in School Facilities and on Preventive Educational Care in School Facilities and Amendment to Other Acts. Children attend schools that are not part of the facility. Only in specific cases do the children attend schools set up at these facilities. Institutional education is provided by school facilities to carry out institutional and protective education. Institutional education and protective care can last up to 18 years; if there are for serious reasons it can be extended up to 19 years. The facility can give an adult pupil who is preparing for a future their career full provision up to the age of 26 years under the terms agreed between the dependent and the facility. Of the age cohort 3 to 18 years, 0.36 % of children are in institutional care, of which more than one third (28 %) are disabled children. (Source: Statistical Yearbook – Education. Performance Statistic Indicators. Data for 2021/22.)
Institutional education (ústavní výchova) is ordered by a court in accordance with the Civil Code in cases where the education of a child has been seriously threatened or has seriously deteriorated and other measures have not led to an improvement, or if parents are unable to ensure their child's education. The court's duty is to consider all other possibilities, e.g., foster care, before imposing institutional education.
Protective care (ochranná péče) is imposed by a court in accordance with the Act on Judiciary in the Matters of Youth, when a child (up to 15 years of age) or a juvenile (from 15 to 18 years) has committed a crime and the lack of proper education which caused the violation of a law cannot be corrected in any other way.
School facilities for institutional education or protective care
a children's home (dětský domov) – for children from 3 to 18 years who do not suffer from behavioural disorders, or for teenage mothers with children; according to the law (on the basis of an agreement with the management of the facility, it is possible to remain in these facilities until the completion of preparation for a future profession if the preparation is continuous) up to a minimum age of 26; children attend schools outside the children's home;
a children's home with a school (dětský domov se školou) – for children for whom institutional care has been ordered and who have serious behavioural difficulties or intellectual disorders, and for children on whom mandatory protective care has been imposed. It is intended for pupils of compulsory school age (6 to 15 years) and it is possible to establish family groups; a basic school is included within this institution;
a preventive care institute (výchovný ústav) – for children over the age of 15 with serious behavioural disorders, under a regime of institutional or protective care (possibly for children older than 12 on whom protective care has been imposed and with such behavioural disorders that they cannot be placed in a children's home with a school); these institutions usually include an upper secondary school, possibly a basic school;
a diagnostic institute (diagnostický ústav) – aimed at examination of children for whom institutional or imposed protective care has been ordered before their are placed into the above-mentioned school facilities (or when they are transferred to or released from them); children are placed in the diagnostic institute by a body charged with their social and legal protection or a responsible person on the basis of a court decision and they stay in the institute usually lasts 8 weeks.
School faciities for preventive educational care
School faciities for preventive educational care are the centres for behavioural development (střediska výchovné péče). The care is aimed at preventing the genesis and the progression of negative manifestations of children's behaviour or disruption of their healthy development, alleviating or eliminating the causes or consequences of already developed behavioural disorders and negative phenomena in social development and contributing to the healthy personal development of childrenpreventive educational care. The centres for behavioural development provide ambulatory, whole day, residential and outreach services.
Definition of the target group(s)
A child, pupil or student can be educated separately only if the school guidance and counselling facility has found out that the support measures provided in mainstream schools or classes, or departments (in conservatoires) and study groups (in tertiary professional schools) are not or have not been sufficient to ensure his/her educational needs and right to education. This option applies only to children, pupils and students who fall under the section 16, par. 9 of the Education Act are included, i.e., those with:
a serious developmental learning disorders (e.g., dyslexia, dyscalculia) or conduct disorder (ADD, ADHD)
serious speech impediments
concomitant multiple disability
Admission requirements and choice of school
The school head decides on the admission of a children, pupils and students (hereinafter pupils) to schools and respective classes, or departments in conservatoires (konzervatoře) or study groups in tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) (hereinafter classes). The school head is responsible for ensuring appropriate conditions for the education of pupils with special educational needs in accordance with a recommendation of, and in collaboration with, a school guidance and counselling facility (školské poradenské zařízení).
Specific conditions apply for admission of a pupil to a school or class separately established for pupils with specified type of disadvantage (while separate conservatories and tertiary professional schools for disadvantaged pupils do not exist in fact). The conditions are set by the Education Act and the Decree on Education of Pupils with Special Educational Needs and of Gifted Pupils as follows:
The pupil suffers from a disadvantage that is explicitly stated in the Education Act, section 16, paragraph 9 (intellectual, visual, hearing, or physical disabilities, serious developmental learning or behavioural disorders, serious speech impediments, multiple concomitant disabilities, autism).
A school guidance and counselling facility has professionally assessed the special educational needs of the pupil and their support measures on the basis of an informed consent of a parent or guardian of the pupil / adult pupil.
A school guidance and counselling facility has found out that support measures provided in inclusive conditions are not enough to meet educational needs of the pupil and their right to education.
The recommendation by the school guidance and counselling facility must clearly state the reasons why the pupil's separate education has been suggested.
The parent or guardian of a minor pupil applies in writing for the admission of the child / the adult pupil applies in writing for his or her admission into this school/class.
The parent or guardian of the minor pupil signs an informed consent to the admission of the child / the adult pupil signs an informed consent to his or her admission to this school/class on the basis of the comprehensive information he/she has got on this type of education. The right to provide comprehensive and plain information is codified in the Education Act, a relevant decree containing the requisites for the informed consent.
Admission to this school must be in the pupil's interest. (The parents of the pupil have the right to choose the type of school, the pupil's interests being a priority opinion.)
The school head decides on the admission of a child to the preparatory stage of a special basic school (přípravný stupeň základní školy speciální) upon the request of the child's parent or guardian and the recommendation of the school guidance and counselling facility.
Recommendation by a school guidance and counselling facility is issued for a specified period, normally 2 years, in justified cases up to 4 years. If the recommendation concerns a pupil with a mild intellectual disability, in case of the first recommendation, it is valid for 1 year, after that for 2 years.
The school guidance and counselling facility must also regularly evaluate the need for support measures to find the best way to provide pupil's education.
If the special educational needs of the pupil change, the school guidance and counselling facility suggests an appropriate modification to the pupil's education.
The parent (guardian) of the pupil / the adult pupil has the right to request a review of the recommendation of the school guidance and counselling facility. The revision of the recommendation falls within the competence of a legal person, set up by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (at present, it is the National Pedagogical Institute). A school, school facility, the Czech School Inspectorate or a public authority which, by its decision, has imposed on the parent (guardian) of the pupil or on the pupil the obligation to use professional counselling assistance in the school guidance and counselling facility may also request a review of the recommendation. A review of the recommendation can be requested within 30 days of receiving it. The revision procedure is set by law.
For the purposes of monitoring the pupil's best interests it is possible to use services of the Body for the Social and Legal Protection of Children.
Age levels and grouping of pupils
Age levels and creating groups when educating children, pupils and students (hereinafter pupils) with special educational needs are analogous to those in the general population, with dissimilarities resulting from the character of the special educational needs of the pupil. Separate education of pupils with a specified type of disadvantage listed in section 16, paragraph 9 of the Education Act is possible at all levels of education, i.e., from pre-primary to tertiary professional (however conservatoires (konzervatoře) and tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) do not exist in a fact). Some schools established for these pupils included several education stages. Therefore, one entity encompasses, e.g., nursery school (mateřská škola) and basic school (základní škola), basic school and upper secondary school (střední škola), or possibly all three levels focused on certain type of disadvantage. School facilities for developing personal interests – after-school club (školní družina) and school club (školní klub) – and school lodging and boarding facilities – boarding houses (internáty) and youth homes (domovy mládeže) are often included in these schools. Grouping of pupils, their number and age levels are regulated mainly by the Decree on Education of Pupils with Special Educational Needs and of Gifted Pupils.
Grouping of pupils
Pupils are divided into classes or departments (in conservatoires) or study groups (in tertiary professional schools) (hereinafter classes) that correspond to their age, year of educational programme, nature of the pupil's disadvantage, or their special educational needs. The degree of disadvantages is an important criterion in pupils with intellectual disability, because of the right choice of a framework education programme.
In one class, pupils of two or more grades, or even of the first and second stages, may be included. It is possible to create groups inside class within a flexible organisation of the education process. Each pupil following a relevant part of it.
A class of pupils with a given disadvantage may accept pupils with another kind of disadvantage, but the number of these pupils can reach at most one quarter of the set maximum number of pupils in the class. This limit does not apply to nursery schools and upper secondary schools (and possibly conservatoires and tertiary professional schools). Classes set up for pupils with intellectual disabilities must never take pupils without intellectual disabilities.
Number of pupils
School for pupils with type of disadvantage listed in section 16, paragraph 9 of the Education Act) has 10 pupils at the minimum. The maximum and minimum number of pupils in a class is 6 to 14 with regard their age and their special educational needs. If the recommendation of the school guidance and counselling facility indicates that the pupils' educational possibilities are not fulfilled and their right to education is not exercised due to their number, the class then has at least 4 and at most 6 pupils. The class of the preparatory stage of basic school has from 4 to 6 pupils. These numbers of pupils are the same for lodging and boarding facilities and school facilities for developing personal interests, which are created separately for pupils with defined type of disadvantage.
The law makes it possible to grant an exception from the minimum and maximum number of pupils in the class: The maximum number can be increased by 4 pupils provided that the quality of education as required by the law and the safety of pupils are ensured. The minimum number of pupils can be reduced provided that the school governing body covers the increased funds.
During practical training in an upper secondary school / class established according to section 16, paragraph 9 of the Act, the maximum number of the pupils in a group is set by a Government Regulation on the System of Fields of Studies in Basic, Upper Secondary and Tertiary Professional Education, but it is not more than 7 pupils. In all other types of the practical education, the maximum number of pupils in a group is 7.
Age levels in nursery schools established for children with defined types of disabilities is analogous to mainstream schools, as a rule, it is intended for children from 2 to 6 years of age; children older than 3 years have a legal right to admission to nursery school, from 5 years pre-primary education is compulsory. Compared to mainstream nursery schools, 6-year-old children with the postponement of compulsory schooling attend these facilities far more often. Classes can be broken down by age or can be composed of mixed age children.
Preparatory stage of special basic school (přípravný stupeň základní školy speciální) is intended for children with moderate and serious intellectual disability, with multiple disabilities or with autism and may be attended by a child from the school year in which they reach 5 years, at most to the school year when they start compulsory school attendance (reach 7 or 8 years). The length of the education in the preparatory stage of special basic school is at most 3 years.
Compulsory school attendance and basic education
Compulsory school attendance begins in the school year following the date the child reaches 6 years. Children with a postponement of compulsory school attendance can start their compulsory school attendance at the latest in the school year in which they reach 8 years of age. The obligation to attend school lasts 9 years, but at most until the end of the school year in which the pupil reaches the age of 17.
Basic education takes usually place in basic school which has 9 years and is broken down into 5-year first and 4-year second stages. Basic education of pupils with disadvantage (listed in section 16, paragraph 9 of the Education Act) educated in classes or schools with modified education programme may last, with the approval of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, 10 school years (6-year first stage and 4-year second stage). Basic education of pupils with serious intellectual disabilities or with multiple disorders or autism, who attend special basic schools (základní školy speciální), always lasts 10 school years and is broken down into the first and second stages.
The school head can allow pupil to continue basic education after compulsory school attendance but at most to the school year when the pupil reaches 18 years. In exceptional cases, the school head may allow pupils listed in sec. 16, par. 9 to continue basic education for up to 20 years of age. Pupils studying within a framework education programme for basic special schools can continue their basic education, on rare occasions with the permission of the school head with an approval of the school organising body, up to 26 years of age. In these cases the school collaborates with the Labour Office if the education concerns the pupil's future profession or work.
For a child with profound intellectual disability, the regional authority (competent according to the child's place of permanent residence) with the consent of the child's parent (guardian) determines the way of education that corresponds to the child's mental and physical abilities, based on a recommended assessment by a physician and the school guidance and counselling facility. At the same time, the regional authority provides adequate assistance in the child's education, especially pedagogical and methodological assistance. If the child's mental and physical abilities change, the regional authority will adjust the way of education accordingly.
Upper secondary education
Upper secondary education builds on the compulsory school attendance (possibly on successful completion of basic education before fulfilling compulsory school attendance). It is takes place in upper secondary schools. The study fields of the secondary education completed by the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška) last usually 4 years, with VET certificate (výuční list) 3 years and in case of a less demanding fields (e.g., for pupils with a mild intellectual disability) 2 years. For pupils with more serious forms of intellectual disabilities, there are one-year and two-year practical schools. Upper secondary education of pupils with special educational needs as stated above can be extended by a maximum of 2 years.
The education of all children, pupils and students (hereinafter pupils), i.e., including those with special educational needs, is provided according to unified framework education programmes that are valid nation-wide and are drawn up for each branch of education. The framework education programmes have obligatory content and are approved by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The creation of the framework education programmes is under the purview of the National Pedagogical Institute, a body established by the Ministry of Education. The creation of the framework education programmes involves experts from practice, professional organisations, higher education institutions (vysoké školy), the non-profit sector, the Czech School Inspectorate and businesses.
Each framework education programme incorporates the possibility modifying its content and conditions with respect to the education of pupils with special educational needs and gifted pupils. When it comes to the content, the fields taught can be modified accordingly to cater to pupils with special educational needs and special pedagogical care subjects can be included. An obligatory part of the curricula of all framework education programmes that are valid nation-wide is also the study of information and communication techniques (ICT) and their use on all levels.
It is possible and advisable to combine the education of pupils in regular classes and classes founded separately for groups of disabled pupils on all levels of education.
The schools work up the framework education programmes into school education programmes.
Framework education programmes
Disabled pupils – with some exceptions – study in schools at all levels according to the framework education programmes designed for the intact population.
Pupils with mild intellectual disabilities at all education levels study according to standard framework education programmes. They have the right to modification of the educational content within an individual educational plan according to recommendations made by the school guidance and counselling facility. The Framework Education Programme for Basic Education sets for individual educational areas the expected outputs and also the minimum recommended level up to which the outputs can be adjusted within the support measures.
Pupils with moderate, severe and very severe intellectual disabilities, multiple concomitant disabilities and autism study according to adjusted Framework Education Programme for Pre-primary Education at the pre-primary level. At higher levels, they study according to separate framework education programmes: At the basic education level, they study according to Framework Education Programme for Special Basic Schools. On the upper-secondary education level these pupils study according to a Framework Education Programme for One-Year Practical School and a Framework Education Programme for Two-year Practical School. Most pupils with very severe intellectual disabilities study according to an individual educational plan, which is based on a relevant framework and school education programme.
School education programme
The school education programme of a school or class set up for groups of disadvantaged pupils contains besides standard subjects:
specific education subjects
special pedagogical care subjects
special interventions (e.g., character language, speech therapy, training of spatial orientation and independent movement for the visually disabled, playing a musical instrument, rehabilitation physical education, communication skills, social skills, additional pedagogical intervention or remedial education, and the like)
These subjects are taught in the range of 1 to 4 hours a week.
Teaching of special pedagogical care subjects and pedagogical interventions are part of the obligatory school curriculum; up to 3 hours daily at maximum. Teaching of special pedagogical care subjects and special pedagogical interventions are, in the case of pupils studying in inclusive conditions, part of their individual educational plan. They may include e.g. speech therapy, speech training, communication skills, orientation and independent movement in space in the visually disabled, training in social skill, sign language and the like.
For pupils who are educated in the Czech sign language, the school provides simultaneous education in the written Czech language, the methods for teaching the Czech language as a foreign language are used within instruction. Teaching range is 4x15 minutes or 3 lessons a week with regard to the pupil's age, total range of the intervention provided being 80 to 200 lessons.
Teaching methods and materials
When educating children, pupils and students (hereinafter pupils) with special educational needs, special educational methods combine with the methods used in ordinary schools. The methods and procedures are chosen to suit the educational needs of pupils.
The communication methods used for substitute and alternative communication, character language, Braille point script, the tactile system for the deaf-blind, etc. are employed. The right to use a relevant communication system is codified by the Education Act.
The right to use compensatory, didactic, and assistance information techniques, which the pupils can use free of charge in accordance with legislation is also codified. For this purpose, the Decree on Education of Pupils with Special Educational Needs and of Gifted Pupils specifies the standard financial requirements for their provision; they are covered from the state budget.
The financial requirements to translate printed texts, books and manuals into Braille are also among others specified. On the national level, this translation is done by the Library and Printer for the Blind K.E. Macana in Prague. Other specialised bodies also produce translations.
Considerable attention is paid to information and communication technologies. Apart from tools used by the regular population, schools are equipped, with special information technologies and special HW and SW, e.g., magnifying software, voice output, Braille printer, electronic magnifiers, teaching software, communicators, etc.
Progression of pupils
The assessment and progression of children, pupils and students (hereinafter pupils) with special educational needs is similar to other pupils in pre-primary education, basic education, and upper secondary education (and education in conservatoires and tertiary professional education; however, schools for disadvantaged pupils do not exist at these levels in a fact). The Education Act stipulates basic conditions, the respective decrees and framework educational programmes set the details.
After completing one year of study in an educational programme, the pupil always gets a report. The report evaluates the results the pupil achieved in mandatory subjects of the school education programme. The report is issued by the school; the responsibility rests with the school head. The assessment of educational results is carried out by the teacher of the subject.
In school reports, it is possible to use classification, verbal evaluation or a combination of both. The school head decides on the way the evaluation should be performed with the approval of the school council (školská rada). Verbal evaluation is always used for pupils in basic special schools (základní škola speciální). Subjects of special pedagogical care are always assessed verbally in all schools. A school head may agree to a verbal assessment for a pupil with a specific learning disability on the request of the pupil's parent or guardian.
The assessment considers the degree of achievement of outputs for individual subjects of the school education program (or individual educational plan), and thus at the same time watches the level of the goals achieved in the context of expected outcomes and key competences in the given framework education programme. The assessment (including marks), the nature of disadvantages is taken into account as well as a recommendation by the school counselling facility.
As in case of mainstream schools, pupils or their parents or guardians may request the school head to re-examine the results of pupils' assessment (re-examination by the examination board is held in specified cases). The pupil who failed at the end of a school year may resit the examination (by an examination board) in defined cases.
The progression of pupils into a higher year is regulated by the same rules as for intact pupils. A pupil who at the end of the given school year, has passed exams in all mandatory subjects except for subjects of formative character progresses to a higher year. A pupil who has already repeated the given school year once also progresses to a higher year.
Repetition of the year as a specific pedagogical measure to achieve the expected key competences of the pupil is possible on the level of obligatory and post-obligatory education. Repeating a year on the given educational level is possible only once. Repeating a year is also possible on a doctor's recommendation and upon the request by the parent or guardian of the pupil / request by adult pupil if there are serious reasons (regardless of whether the pupil has already repeated the year at the given grade).
When educational conditions are being specified and the pupil's advance in education process, collaboration between the school, the pupil/parents and a school guidance and counselling facility is important.
The pupil can be transferred from separate education to inclusive education and vice versa with the appropriate selection of support measures; however, always only on the basis of a review and recommendation of the school counselling guidance and facility. When a pupil is transferred from a school or class (department or study group) established pursuant to sec. 16, par. 9 of the Education Act to the mainstream school or class, the school head shall place the pupil in the year corresponding to the achieved knowledge and skills, taking into account his/her age.
There is a codified possibility of speeding up the advance of exceptionally gifted pupils.
Pupils and students (hereinafter pupils) with special educational needs, both those who have studied in inclusive conditions or in separate conditions, receive identical certification as other pupils in the respective educational programme. After completing one year of study in an educational programme, the pupil always gets a report. Below are the conditions for completing the entire educational program.
After completing their last year of basic education, school leavers from basic schools (základní školy) acquire the basic education (ISCED 244). School leavers from special basic schools (základní škola speciální) intended for pupils with a more serious disability acquire the basics of education (ISCED 244). This is evidenced by the final report, which includes a clause on obtaining the appropriate degree of education.
Education in four-year, six-year or eight-year general fields (ISCED 344) and four-year vocational fields (ISCED 354) completed by the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška). The level of education is documented by receiving the Maturita examination report (vysvědčení o maturitní zkoušce). The Maturita examination has a standardised part and a profile part. The Education Act and the Decree on Detailed Conditions on Completing Education by the Maturita Examination in Secondary Schools stipulate the rules for harmonisation of the conditions under which pupils with special educational needs can take an exam. The conditions include e.g. adjustment of the environment, a longer time limit, content and formal modifications to the test materials, differences in evaluation, the use of compensatory aids including ICT, interpretation into the sign language, etc. Pupils with disadvantages are, after an expert opinion given by a school guidance and counselling facility possessing of an authorisation for issuing such an opinion, included in the appropriate category of the accepted adjustment of conditions for holding the Maturita examination. An expert opinion is attached to the application for the Maturita examination, and on its basis the pupil is granted the necessary adjustment of conditions. A pupil's diagnosis is not the decisive criterion for their inclusion into one of the categories but a functional consequence of their disadvantage. The didactic tests of these pupils are assessed by specially instructed experts.
Preparation in fields of upper secondary education with a VET certificate (ISCED 353) is completed by passing a VET final examination (závěrečná zkouška). The level of education is documented by receiving the report on VET final examination (vysvědčení o závěrečné zkoušce) and VET certificate (výuční list). In the VET final examination, standardised and compulsory specified assignments are used. Laying down specific provisions on VET final examinations for pupils with special educational needs falls within the competence of the school guidance and counselling facility and the school head, which must be in accordance with the Decree on Education of Pupils with Special Educational Needs and of Gifted Pupils. The school head allows appropriate conditions to be created. It is possible to formally adjust the assignments and work out assignment guidelines, differences in evaluation, modify length of tests, and the use of ICT and other compensatory aids.
Education in the fields of secondary education (ISCED 353 or 253) is completed by the VET final examination. This also applies in the fields one-year practical school and two-year practical school for pupils with more severe intellectual disabilities. School leavers get VET final examination report.