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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Educational support and guidance


12.Educational support and guidance

Last update: 28 March 2024

Education of children with special educational needs is part of the uniform educational system and a public interest activity, based on the Law on Education of Children with Special Educational Needs from 2021 which have set the legal framework and the obligation of additional improvement of the position and educational provision to children with special educational needs, as well as on special laws governing preschool, primary, secondary general and vocational education.

Montenegrin education system has set inclusive education within the mainstream schools as the first option and an imperative for children with special educational needs, which is reflected in the constant increase in the number of children with SEN at these institutions. Children with developmental disabilities and difficulties who cannot receive education at schools are educated at resource centres, when this is in their best interest, because of the necessary support and tight connection between education, habilitation and rehabilitation.

The objectives of education of children with special educational needs include:

  1. providing equal education opportunities for all children;

  2. providing adequate conditions that allow for the optimum development;

  3. timely guidance and inclusion into adequate programmes of education;

  4. individual approach;

  5. maintaining balance between physical, intellectual, emotional and social development;

  6. including parents in the process of habilitation, rehabilitation and education;

  7. continuity of programmes of education;

  8. coherence and complexity of education;

  9. organising education as close as possible to the place of residence;

  10. providing adequate educational technology;

  11. providing technical assistance for children with special educational needs.

The Strategy of Inclusive Education (2019-2025) sets the directions for further development of education of children with special education needs. It continues to pursue the implementation of the measures included in the 2014-2018 Inclusive Education Strategy and relies on the binding international principles, standards and recommendations of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Strategy covers the principles, theoretical and practical achievements in developing the potentials of both the children with special needs in education and the society at large. It assumes human rights-based approach, aiming to prevent, as well as to remove obstacles to participation and achievements during education for all children. 

The Guiding Principle of the Inclusive Education Strategy  is to promote, safeguard and ensure full and equal participation of all children with special needs in education in inclusive education without discrimination, exclusion and based on their equality with others. 
Strategy Goal - Provide access and quality inclusive education at all levels for children with special needs in education. The goal addresses the acquisition of life skills and other skills relevant for the social and   personal development and development of one's potential. It is achieved by means of support provided by competent professionals, overcoming the barriers in the environment and the ones reflected in the attitudes of the community. 
The overall goal is operationalized through the following tasks:
Task 1: Ensure and implement accessibility and equity of education for all children alongside their peers through the necessary cross-sectoral support.
Task 2: Ensure and implement equal and continuous  inclusive education through successful cooperation within and between sectors and transition from one level of education to the next.
Task 3: Support and improve the quality of inclusive education through strengthening school policies, culture and practice.

The education system is aimed at developing democratic values and creating environment without social exclusion or other forms of discriminatory behaviour. General Law on Education (Article 9a) prescribes the prohibition of discrimination in the field of education.

The focus of working with children of Roma and Egyptian population is on their integration, improvement of their school and social achievements. The inclusion programmes for children of Roma and Egyptian population are continuously implemented at all levels of education in Montenegro.

The number of Roma and Egyptian children in primary education is increasing year in year out, and there is a positive trend when it comes to their primary school education.

Students of Roma and Egyptian population are enrolled in secondary schools where teaching is carried out in Montenegrin and other languages in the official use, typically according to the principle of affirmative action. For the enrolled secondary school students of this population, the Ministry of Education provides free textbooks in cooperation with the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, whereas the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights provides scholarships.

Activities related to the improvement of education of Roma and Egyptian children, as defined in the Strategy of social inclusion of Roma and Egyptians 2021-2025 are largely in the stage of implementation. The following activities have been recognised as the most important:

  • Increased enrolment and reduced dropout rate at all levels of education;

  • Increased enrolment rate of Roma and Egyptian children in preschool education;

  • Encouraging good school performance of Roma and Egyptian children;

  • Take additional measures in order to include Roma and Egyptians in the university level of education.

  • Special measures aimed at reducing dropout rate;

  • Raising awareness on the significance of education; inclusion of adults in the program of elementary functional literacy and basic education for adults, as well as in professional education and training programs.

At schools, all children are provided with professional support by professional associates: school counsellors, psychologists, special education teachers. Career advising is carried out by professional associates, as well as teachers. Strategic framework for career advising was provided in the Strategy for Lifelong Career Guidance in Montenegro (2016-2020) following up on the measures and activities defined in the National Strategy of Lifelong Career Guidance in Montenegro (2011-2015), and is based on the achieved level of career guidance development in Montenegro, as well as on the need to further develop and institutionally improve career guidance system by defining priorities, measures and activities required to achieve them. In accordance with the Strategy, basic objectives in the field of career guidance include:

  • providing each individual, at all life stages, with information on the opportunities for learning, acquiring qualifications, employment;

  • providing each individual with services of career advising and guidance, regardless of their age, gender, nationality, background, bearing in mind the needs of the individual and of society;

  • providing support for employment and entrepreneurship to the young and old, as well as improvement of accountability for one’s own actions in career development in order to avoid unemployment;

  • reducing time of transition from education to labour by developing career management skills.