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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Population: demographic situation, languages and religions


1.Political, social and economic background and trends

1.3Population: demographic situation, languages and religions

Last update: 27 November 2023

Demographic situation

In the middle of 2021, there were 619,211 inhabitants in Montenegro. The number of children (0 to 17 years old) in Montenegro in mid-2021 is 133,310 or 21.6% of the total population.

The population of working age or the population aged 15 to 64 makes up 66.1% of the total number of inhabitants, which is 409,433 inhabitants.

The population aged 65 and over constitutes 16% of the total number of inhabitants, which is 98,789 inhabitants. 

In Montenegro, based on natural increase per 1,000 inhabitants, the number of inhabitants decreased by 3.4 inhabitants. There were 5.2 marriages per 1,000 inhabitants in 2021, which represents the marriage rate, while the divorce rate is 1.2. 

The migration rate in Montenegro is 10.9, which means that out of 1,000 inhabitants, 11 people changed their place of residence within the borders of Montenegro.

Life expectancy at birth in 2021 is 73.8 years.


According to the 2011 Census in the structure of the population, in relation to the national or ethnic affiliation, Montenegrins account for 44.98%, Serbs 28.73%, Bosnians 8.65%, Albanians 4.9%, Muslims 3.31%, Croats 0.97%.


Pursuant to the Constitution of Montenegro, the official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin. In official use are Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian language.

The Cyrillic and Latin alphabet are equal.

According to the population 2011 Census 36.97% of the Montenegrin population speak Montenegrin, 42.88% Serbian, 5.33% Bosnian, 5.27% Albanian, 0.45% Croatian languages.


According to the 2011 Census structure of Montenegrin population by religion consists of 72.00% of Orthodox, 15.97% of Islamic, 3.43% of Catholics, 3.14% of  Muslim religion and others (agnostics, adventists, protestants, etc.).

Declared atheists are 1.14%. 

Religious communities are equal and free in the exercise of religious rites and religious affairs.

Religious communities are separated from the state.

At up to the university public educational institutions, education is of secular character and the religious activity is not allowed except in the secondary religious schools.