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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Special education needs provision within mainstream education


12.Educational support and guidance

12.1Special education needs provision within mainstream education

Last update: 28 March 2024

Definition of the Target Group

At the pre-university level, the term special educational needs is used to describe children with:

  • developmental disabilities (physical, intellectual, sensory, autism spectrum and combined), and

  • developmental difficulties (speech and language, behaviour, learning, difficult chronic and long-term illnesses, difficulties caused by emotional, social, language and cultural deprivation).

Education of children with special educational needs is carried out at preschool institutions, institutions that provide primary, general and vocational secondary education, as well as at resource centres.

Inclusive education within the mainstream schools is set as the first option and an imperative, which is confirmed by the continuous increase of children with special educational needs at these institutions.

As a rule, school, i.e. resource centre is obliged to design an Individual Development and Education Programme (IDEP) for a child with special educational needs, within 30 days following the child’s enrolment, defining: the forms of educational work for educational fields i.e. subjects, provision of additional professional assistance, mobility between programmes, adaptation in terms of organisation, standards of knowledge, achievements and skills, testing and assessment of the child’s knowledge, achievements and progress, as well as timetable. For the purpose of preparing, applying, monitoring and adapting the programme, school or resource centre, forms a professional team composed of: teachers, professional associates from the school or resource centre, with the involvement of parents.

At preschool institutions and schools, children with special educational needs receive education by being fully included in educational groups, i.e. classes together with other children, with the possibility of having additional professional assistance, and including additional conditions and tools, in line with the educational programme.

Education of children with special educational needs according to adapted educational programme with additional professional assistance, which cannot be achieved by their full inclusion into educational groups, i.e. classes together with other students, is carried out in special groups or classes involving joint participation in extracurricular activities, i.e. attending certain subjects alongside peers from the nearest school; this implies the adapted provision of educational programme and the additional professional assistance, additional conditions and tools, technical assistance, in line with the educational programme.

General Law on Education recognises talented students as students who show particular gift, interest, curiosity and ability for thought and creative processes in certain subjects or fields, and achieve exceptional results, while having at least very good general performance grade.

Specific Measures of Support

According to the Law on Education of Children with Special Educational Needs, the premises, equipment and teaching resources of preschool institutions and schools must be adapted for children with special educational needs, in line with the educational programme. To carry out education of children with special educational needs, schools are obliged to provide adequate educational technologies, as part of additional teaching resources (bigger font, Braille alphabet, etc.).  In order to provide students, i.e. children with special educational needs with adequate care, the number of students in a class has been reduced by 10%, as compared to the number established by Law.

Resource centres, at which children with special educational needs receive education according to special educational programmes, also provide assistance and support to inclusive education through: advisory and professional work, trainings of teachers and professional associates for work with children with special educational needs, use of sign language, preparation, adaptation, designing, use of special textbooks (in Braille, in Digital Accessible Information System – Daisy format) and other specialised teaching resources.

Moreover, Bureau for Educational Services organises and coordinates the work of mobile teams composed of psychologists, special education teachers from mainstream schools and resource centres. The teams visit schools as support for inclusive education focusing on the preparation of Individual Development and Education Programme (IDEP), methodological guidance, adaptation of instruction, advisory and instructive work with parents, individual work with children, etc.

Kindergartens and schools prepare IDEP for each child, defining academic and developmental objectives that should be met. In the preparation of IDEP, the team defines the focus priority field, which is usually a functional or educational field. Within the educational field, teacher works on the individual programme for the subject(s), in cooperation with the professional service and parents, based on the child’s characteristics and the preserved potentials. The development of IDEP sets off from the assessment of the present level of the child (characteristics, knowledge, achievements, needs, etc.), from what he/she has adopted, what he/she can successfully and independently do within a particular field, regardless of the conditions and circumstances. The aspect of each area in which a child is successful serves as a good basis for strengthening their self-esteem and planning support for their further work. This is followed by preparing long-term and short-term plans and selecting techniques and methods for implementing the set educational standard.

For children with special educational needs, kindergartens and schools engage teaching assistants as technical support, and there are about 537 assistants in educational institutions for the 2023/2024 school year. The scope of the support which teaching assistant provides under the supervision of teachers, professional service and school principal is determined by IDEP and class schedule, as it cleary defines the conditions, scope and manner of the service provision. In accordance with IDEP, one assistant is responsible for several students, making sure not to bring child into a segregation situation. The qualification required for assistants is defined at level four, sub-level one (IV1) of the National Qualification Framework, including the necessary training for work.

During the coronavirus-induced pandemic for students with special educational needs, teachers adapted and prepared individualized teaching materials in accordance with the Individual Developmental Education Program (IDEP). On the previously created school portal, the page for inclusive education, there are materials that are adapted to the developmental characteristics and needs of the child, which aim to serve as a model or idea for the preparation of individualized materials: by areas of development, work, subject programs.

Concerning the architectural adaptation of school premises, access for children with physical disabilities has been adapted at 107 educational institutions, including toilets at 98 institutions. 22 institutions have an elevator or a platform installed.