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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Main executive and legislative bodies


1.Political, social and economic background and trends

1.1Main executive and legislative bodies

Last update: 27 November 2023

According to the 1st Article of Constitution (1982), Turkey is a Republic. Constution also explicitly states that "Turkey is a democratic, secular and social state governed by the rule of law respecting human rights; loyal to the nationalism of Atatürk" (Article 2). Within the framework of unitary insight, The Turkish state, with its territory and nation, is an indivisible entity. Its language is Turkish. (Article 3). All the constitutions referred so far (1924,1961, 1982 and 2010) characterized the Turkish Republic not only as a state of law but also as a "social state of law" (Management Law, p.17). The Turkish public administration is regulated according to the principle "separation of powers". This principle was first introduced in the 1876 Constitution and also adopted in 1924, 1961, 1982 and 2010 constitutions. In this respect, the legislative power is vested in the Turkish Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi-TBMM), the executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic after the constitutional amendment on 24 June, 2018 and the Council of Ministers, and the judicial power is exercised by the independent courts.

As it stated in the Article 126 of the Constitution, Turkey, provinces are further divided into sections gradually according to their economic conditions and public services in terms of central administrative structure, geographical conditions.

In order to ensure efficiency and harmony in offering public services, central administrative organizations can be established in several provinces. The duties and powers of these organizations are regulated by law.

Basic structure of Turkey is summarized; 

Assessment, Selection and Placement Center (ÖSYM): It delivers exams and placement services that are needed in the transition to the stage of secondary education (ISCED 3) levels of higher education (ISCED 5/6).

Confederation of the Turkish Tradesmen and Craftsmen: As a civic organization, it cooperates with the Ministry of National Education in the areas that need attention.

General Directorate of Credits and Dormitories:  The aim of the General Directorate of Credits and Dormitories is to make dormitories for the students who are studying at home and abroad, to make them help the people, to provide nutritional aid, to contribute to national and spiritual developments through education, social, cultural and sporting activities, to give credit or scholarship to the students of higher education, to facilitate the higher education of students.

ISKUR: It cooperates in the approval of the program of development and in making the procedure for the determination of whether to have a minimum standard of educational spaces in the Active Labour Services vocational training organized under the Regulation.

Ministry of Finance: It provides resources form the investments in the education and training of personnel expenses in the Ministry of National Education.

Ministry of Development: It provides enterprise strategic cooperation in the management and coordination of activities and guidance in planning with development plans for education.

Ministry of Family and Social Services: It provides pre-school education programs for children aged between 24 months in kindergartens and children aged 25-66 months in day care homes for children in early childhood.. In addition, the provision of all kinds of educational and social services including the social inclusion of persons with disabilities, rehabilitation, accessibility and employment activities are carried out in collaboration with the Ministry of National Education. The project is carried out in collaboration with the Ministry of National Education for the training of qualified human resources in the labour market for the purpose of increasing the employment rate in our country. EU Pre-accession Assistance (IPA II) under the Development of Human Resources Sectoral Operational Programme (İKGSOP) and EU-funded education are provided as the authority and lifelong learning for employment and the preparation and implementation of projects in the field of vocational training.

Ministry of Youth and Sports: It provides for the execution of cooperation within social and sporting activities in developing supportive policies, plans and programs of youth.

Ministry of Health: It provides its cooperation to maintain and improve students’ health in a healthy school environment.

Ministry of Science and Technology: It cooperates with Organized Industrial Zones that have been already opened and will be opened regarding private and public vocational and technical education institutions. In the industrial establishments, co-operation is carried out on-the-job training and skills in these school student internships.

Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure: Marine, aircraft maintenance, shipbuilding, rail technology, civil aviation and transport services determine the national and international classifications and standards in the field. This training in vocational and technical education schools and institutions is carried out in line with the standards of cooperation and training services.

National Agency:  It provides learning and mobility opportunities and the implementation of new other countries and international organizations, especially the European Union, training and financial support in the field of youth, and the execution of the program.

Presidency of Presidency Strategy and Budget: Provides resources from the budget to the investment and personnel expenses of the Ministry of Education. In addition, it provides cooperation in the development of training plans, coordination in corporate strategic management and planning, orientation and investment activities of private schools.

Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey: It cooperates with the Ministry of National Education in promoting research and development activities by promoting science and technology in the field of education.

The Council of Higher Education: It is responsible for the stage including at least four semesters based on secondary education in the national education system of higher education (ISCED 5, 6, 7 and 8). It handles all administrative and educational services and activities including vocational schools, high schools and universities on dissemination, and development.

The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB): TOBBB is the highest legal entity in Turkey representing the private sector. The incentive behind the Chamber is “to establish universities, colleges of higher education, vocational and technical education institutions, to participate in and collaborate with those already established in order to provide the growth of the qualified labor force that the industry needs; to arrange work schedules by collaborating with the relevant institutions, to promote the preparation and application of the education program in accordance with these work schedules; to guide to the implementations for the purpose of execution of apprenticeship and vocational education services rendered by the chambers to be harmonic; to prepare and execute in-service training program for the administrators and personnel of the chambers and commodity exchanges, to ensure the establishment of a vocational education center in case of necessity” (TOBB Law, Article 56/z).

Turkish Statistical Institute: According to national data, it releases calendar formal scope of Official Statistics Programme prepared in the five-year period and non-formal education statistics and education expenditures of issues published in cooperation with the Ministry of National Education.

Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA): VQA cooperates with the certification to ensure coordination of Europass documents in the preparation of National Occupational Standards in technical and professional areas in order to establish and operate a national qualification system that is compliant with the European Union and to establish and operate a nationally recognized quality assurance system. 

The Ministry of National Education (MONE) cooperates with institutions and organizations, and other ministries to meet the needs in the areas where it operates.