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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Higher education


7.Higher education

Last update: 27 November 2023

The tertiary education system in Turkey covers all institutions implementing at least two-year programs after secondary education. The higher education system consists of universities, high technology institutes, higher vocational schools and other off-university higher education institutions (higher police and military schools and academies) (ISCED 2011; 5, 6, 7 and 8 levels). Most of the higher education institutions are public institutions and the rest of them are foundation institutions. Universities consist of full-time four-five-six-year faculties that lead to bachelor's degrees and vocational education based four years higher schools, two-year higher vocational schools with completely vocationally oriented education leading to associate degrees and institutes (graduate schools) that execute graduate programs. Furthermore, higher vocational schools can be founded under the auspice of foundations independent of universities. Besides, Anadolu University and Atatürk University have associate degree programs and bachelor’s degree programs that conduct education via distant education.

Turkey has a total of 209 higher education institutions including 129 state and 75 foundation universities, and 5 foundation vocational schools. All of the 81 cities in Turkey host a university or universities. 

Universities at all levels of vocational and academic degrees are institutions authorized to provide public legal entities. Universities as corporate bodies are entitled to award any vocational and academic degrees at every level. Not any school types or stages exist between secondary education and higher education (ISCED 2014). State universities are directly funded by the state and do not have any connection with either a foundation or a private institution. Foundation universities, on the other hand, are founded under the state’s observation and examination without any financial focus. 

Refer to detailed information on higher education institutions