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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Types of higher education institutions


7.Higher education

7.1Types of higher education institutions

Last update: 27 November 2023

According to Higher Education Law (Yükseköğretim Kanunu), No. 2547, whole education that is based on secondary education and every stage that lasts four semi years or more is accepted as higher education (Article 3/a). Higher education institutions consist of universities and high technology institutes and faculties, institutes, academies, conservatories, research and application centers within these institutions and higher vocational schools that are affiliated to a university or high technology institute or higher vocational schools that are founded by non-profit making private organizations and organizations without being affiliated to university or a high technology institute (Article 3/b).  

Higher education institutions, if discussed according to their status and financing, are divided into two as public and foundation universities. The finance of public universities is provided by public resources including student contributions (student contributions’ share generally remains under 10%). Foundation universities basically charge tuition fees (Article 14 of the Law on the Amendment of the Higher Education Law and Some Laws published in the Official Gazette dated 17 April 2020 and numbered 31102). As there is not any higher education institution that derives over 50% of their revenues from the government in Turkey, there are not any government-dependent private higher education institutions. These universities are subjected to the same legal legislation as state universities excluding some administrative and financial issues.

All higher education institutions in associate degree, undergraduate and graduate level (master's, doctorate) level are gathered under the roof of university (and high technology institute) in addition to some vocational higher education institutions established by Ministry of National Defence and Ministry of Interior and the security organization. For this reason, both the schools for the direct profession and the higher education institutions for academic purposes are under the same roof. In general, there are no independent higher education institutions except universities or high technology institutes, except for six foundation vocational higher schools. In this context, the university in the Law No. 2547 on Higher Education "is a university that has high level of education - education, scientific research, publications and consultancy with scientific autonomy and public legal entity; an institution of higher education consisting of faculties, institutes, colleges and similar institutions and units "(Article 3 / d). According to the current law and current practices, faculties for undergraduate education, institutes for postgraduate education, four-year colleges for a specific profession, conservatories that produce artists in the fields of music and performing arts, vocational colleges that educate intermediate human power for certain professions can take part in the university. Due to this diversity, all universities in the country have the authority to grant diplomas for all academic and professional degrees. Besides traditional universities (universities of different faculties and higher schools), there are also universities (eg Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University) for specific areas such as science and engineering, fine arts.