The subsections below portray the conditions of service for teachers working for early childhood education and school education.
The studies to be conducted by the Ministry of National Education are framed on the following governmental and legislative documents: Tenth Development Plan, 65th Government Plan, Middle Period Program, Annual Programs, Programs with Priority for Transformation, and the Strategic Plan 2015-2019 and 2023 Education Vision of the Ministry of National Education.
Entry to the Profession
Entrance to the profession for the early childhood and other teacher is based on certain processes. Teachers are employed in line with the 48th Article of the Civil Servants Law numbered 657 as well as the regulation of the Ministry of National Education on employment, appointment and movement of the teachers. The 5th Article of this regulation portrays the employment criteria of the teachers, as follows:
(a) Teaching profession starts with candidate teaching process.
(b) From those who will be appointed as candidate teachers/teachers need to hold the following specific qualifications, in addition to the general criteria set by the 657th Law;
(c) The field teachers graduate from university should be suitable for the appointment field by the Ministry;
(d) Those who graduate from the overseas universities should have their diplomas and/or pedagogic certificates approved by the Council of Higher Education.
(e) In the first appointment, the necessary score should have been taken from the centralized national test (KPSS);
(f) Should not take any punishment that necessitates an expelling from the teacher profession.
The specific requirements are as follows for those who intent to apply for the candidate teacher posts in line with the general requirements of the 48th article of the 657th Law,
a) The major from which the candidate hold a diploma should be within the required fields of the Ministry,
b)Those who have their overseas teaching diplomas or formation educations approved as equivalent by the Council of Higher Education,
c) To obtain a minimum grade from the KPSS (Public Personnel Selection Examination) to be appointed for the fields concerned,
d) Not to be charged by any crimes that impedes individuals from becoming a civic personnel and a teacher.
Field Knowledge Test for Teachers (FKTT), as a part of KPSS, was first offered in 2013 in 15 different fields. FKTT is based on a regulation entitled ‘Regulation of Examinations for First Appointment to Public Posts’, which was signed in cooperation with OSYM, DPT and MoNE, and the examination is prepared by OSYM, as the national testing and placement institution possessing a test-item pool for such examinations. Teaching Area Knowledge Test in 2017 and 2018; Turkish, Elementary Mathematics, Science / Science and Technology, Social Studies, Turkish Language and Literature, History, Geography, Mathematics (High School), Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Religious Culture and Ethics, Foreign Language (English), Guidance Teacher, Classroom Teaching and Preschool Teaching has been conducted in a total of 16 areas. In 2019, in addition to the above mentioned fields, Pre-School Teachers will be taught in Imam Hatip High School Vocational Courses. In 2020, FKTT will be offered to the teachers from the following fields: Turkish, Elementary Mathematics, Science / Science and Technology, Social Studies, Turkish Language and Literature, History, Geography, Mathematics (High School), Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Religious Culture and Ethics, Foreign Language (English), Guidance Teacher, Classroom Teaching and Preschool Teaching,
Appointments in line with the 657th Law and in 4A status are made by the MoNE by referring to the quantitative data that explicate the teacher need across the country as well as the examination scores of the candidate in electronically. Based on the KPSS results and the city choices of the candidate teachers, the appointments are electronically made by the MoNE in an open session for the candidate teachers. Acceptance of the applications of the teachers who would like to be appointed via 657th Law in 4A candidate status is carried out in line with the educational institutions’ needs.
Entry to the profession requires obtaining the criteria set in the 657th Law and 48th Article issued on 14/07/1965, obtaining a university diploma recognized and necessitated by the MoNE and a successful grade in the examinations offered by the Ministry and Assessment, Selection and Placement Center.
Candidate teachers acquire right to take a written or an oral examination in case they work at least for a year and become successful in performance evaluations. In the oral examination offered to candidate teachers, a commission issued by the Ministry evaluates teachers in line with the following criteria:
a) Summarizing understand a topic, reasoning ability and power of expression,
b) Communication skills, self-confidence and ability to persuade,
c) Openness to scientific and technological developments
d) The ability to representation before the Community and educator qualifications.
Those who pass the exam will be assigned a teacher. Candidates who fail the exam are subject again to the evaluation at the end of a year in another school within or outside the province. Candidates who fail to pass the oral examination twice lose their public post. However, those who were able to complete the candidate civil servant period, according to the 657th Law and 48th Article issued on 14/07/1965, are not expelled from their civil servant posts. Instead those individuals are appointed to the posts by the Ministry as civil servants based on their acquired degrees and status. Same process is equally valid for the candidate teaching posts.
Employment status in the MoNE is: full-time post, contractual post and depending upon the specific necessitate part-time posts. The pervasive model for the professional status is either full-time or the contractual status in the Ministry. Candidate teachers who were able to complete the 4+2 year-long service criterion obtain the full-time work guarantee.
The service requirements of teachers in early childhood, primary and secondary education in Turkey are determined by various laws and institutions. Furthermore, there are differences in the service requirements of teachers (preschool, primary and secondary school teachers) bound to Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı-MEB) and academic staff of universities. In this context, all teachers, in the professional status, acceptance to the profession, working period and holidays, salary and retirement, are primarily subject to the general laws (Civil Servants Law/Devlet Memurları Kanunu, Retirement Fund Law/Emekli Sandığı Kanunu). Additionally, there are special laws on the status description, promotion in profession, working period and holidays, in-service-training, etc. (for the teachers of MEB, Basic Law of National Education (Milli Eğitim Temel Kanunu), for tertiary education academic staff, Higher Education Law/Yükseköğretim Kanunu and Law on Higher Education Personnel/Yükseköğretim Personel Kanunu). Most of the public servants or civil servants work in public posts in line with the frame depicted by the 657th Law for State Servants. However, the legislative frame is characterized by the 2547th Law of the Higher Education and 2914th Law of the Higher Education Personnel. Those laws were mainly issued in 1981 to restructure the higher education in a reform process and resulted in various modifications in service characteristics of the tertiary personnel (E.g: status description, in-service-training, working period and holidays, placement and appointment, etc.). Teacher education in Turkey is primarily addressed in an official document issued as Development Plans, in the section concerning the education and human resource planning, and those studies have long been carried out by Presidency of Presidency Strategy and Budget, the MoNE and CoHE.
In Turkey, in general, one of the teachers in appropriate status in school is assigned in lieu of teachers on leave or incapable of coming to duty in the schools affiliated to Ministry of National Education. For long term leaves, teachers in appropriate status can be assigned temporarily by the Directorates of National Education in line with the 108th Article of the 657th Law or teachers can be assigned to different schools in a temporary status based on the 'Regulation of Teachers' Appointment or Replacing'.
Within the schools affiliated to Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı-MoNE), teachers are supported by the Ministry, school administration and Okul-Aile Birliği (school-parents associations). Among the regulations on these supports, activities such as school seminars, colleague sharing, in-service training, supplying teaching material, distance education etc. may be mentioned. As the supporters of the teachers, administrators of the school, experienced teachers, inspectors, voluntary educators can be listed. In addition, MEB uses ICT for the teachers at any level as a “substantial learning resource”. Also, school guidance services support teachers in different areas. Special training programs are applied for the beginner teachers to prepare and develop them because they are candidate teacher in the first year.
In order to increase the prestige and perception of the teaching profession, a Unit has been designed within the MoNE called Directorate of Social and Cultural Activities. In cooperation with the other similar units, this unit organizes particular social and cultural activities for the teachers.
In addition, teachers are supported with a financial mechanism called Preparation Payment for Educational Year. Teachers were given a 1.180 TL in 2018-2019 educational year.
Salaries of teachers working in the schools and institutions affiliated to the Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı-MEB) in a permanent and contractual status are defined and paid in accordance with the degrees and ranks mentioned in article 36 of Civil Servants Law (Devlet Memurları Kanunu) No 657. Teachers are included in “educational service class” in this law, and their salaries are defined in accordance with this class and their degrees/ranks. According to the law mentioned above, entrance degree of a vocation is determined by the service category of that vocation (for example, for teachers “education-instruction” category) and the educational level of the individual. Promotion in the profession is actualized as every year of service equivalent to promoting a rank, promoting rank for advanced level of education (a rank for master’s degree and three for doctorate degree). Every rank promotion (per three-year e degree promotion) at the same time means increase in salary. In other words, teachers’ promotions in the profession and increases in the salary is related with the length of service period, advanced level of education teachers completed and excellence of the performance of teacher. Salary and additional index tables in article 43 is taken as a basis on determining salaries. In addition, education compensation and fringe benefits in an amount determined by the Council of Ministers are paid in compliance with article 152 of Civil Servants Law (Devlet Memurları Kanunu) No 657. In addition to the base salary payment mentioned above, there are certain additional payments for the teachers. These are:
- In accordance with the additional article 32 of the Law No. 657, “Preparatory Allowance for Education” is given to teachers once at the beginning of each academic year.
- Teachers who complete their monthly lesson assignments are paid an additional lesson fee for each lesson hour they teach.
- Every month, “foreign language compensation” is given to teachers who pass at least 70 points in the Foreign Language Exam (YDS). According to the scores, the amount of foreign language compensation may vary.
- Within the framework of article 8 of the Collective Agreement Regarding Education, Training and Science Service Branch of the 6th Term Collective Agreement Covering the Years 2022 and 2023 on Financial and Social Rights Regarding Public Officials and Service Branches published in the Official Gazette dated 25/08/2021 and numbered 31579. ; Among the teachers working in formal and non-formal education institutions affiliated to the Ministry of National Education, those who have completed their master's and doctorate degrees are paid the additional course fees to be paid for the courses they actually attend, with an increase of 7% and 20%, respectively. Like other civil servants subject to Law No. 657, teachers are also paid according to certain conditions within the scope of social rights; family allowance, maternity allowance, death benefit, treatment allowance etc. for non-working spouses and children.
In accordance with Article 19 of the Collective Agreement Regarding the Education, Training and Science Service Branch of the 6th Term Collective Agreement, teachers and assistant principals working in schools and institutions are paid an additional 3 hours of tuition per week in return for the duty assigned in accordance with the relevant legislation.
In accordance with Article 21 of the 4th Term Collective Agreement, teachers and deputy principals working in schools and institutions are paid an additional tuition fee of 3 hours per week for the duty.
Working Time and Holidays
It is mandatory to run 180 working days of education in primary and secondary education. Weekly teaching loads of the teachers were reorganized by Cabinet Decision in 2006. According to this, preschool teachers and primary school classroom teachers are obliged to attend 30 hours per week (12 hours of which requires extra payment), branch teachers (primary and secondary education) are obliged to attend 30 hours per week (15 hours of which require extra payment). Classroom teachers are obliged to be present in the school minimum 30 hours per week. Branch teachers can leave the schools at the end of their class hour. However, all teachers are obliged to attend legally determined and school administrations’ anticipated duties out of the teaching duties (commissions, board, watch, social activities, etc.) (Regulation for Primary Education Institutions, Article 64; Liseler Yönetmeliği, Article 56). Because it cannot calculate the time spent for the activities out of the teaching, the rate of the educational load in the total load cannot be calculated. However, course load is 75% in the total load as an average estimate may be claimed. According to Primary Education Law (İlköğretim ve Eğitim Kanunu) (article 43 issued on 12/01/1961); teachers are on vacation continuous for two months in summer holiday. Teachers in the secondary education institutions are on vacation for 20 or 30 days (according to the length of service) in summer holiday as mentioned above in Civil Servants Law (Devlet Memurları Yasası). Legal settings acknowledge a special arrangement (summer holiday) for only classroom teachers. Summer holidays of the other teachers are regulated by the general laws related with civil servants. The teachers shall have days off in official holidays (Saturdays and Sundays) and other holidays (national days' festivals) and no cut-off shall be made from the salaries for the days off.
It is mandatory to serve as a teacher to be appointed as a school administrator. Management organization in the Central Ministry: Ministry of Education staff to various positions in the central organization of the Ministry of Promotion, and Title Change Location assignments in accordance with the provisions of the Regulation on the Appointment Relocation is done. City/County Offices of Education: Assignments are carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Regulation on the Appointment Relocation for Ministry of Education staff at the local level to executive positions of Promotion.
Mobility and Transfers
For teaching profession, it is an essence to serve in different parts of the country (Major Law of the National Education, Act 46). It is also mandatory to serve in a given school not less than three years for full-time teachers, as stated by the Ministry. Mobility and transfer of the teachers are performed by the Ministry by referring to the demands of the teachers and the status of the schools, without jeopardizing the quality of the educational provisions. Transfer of the teachers are actualized in line with certain criteria such as pardon groups, serving areas, serving grades and other issues as stated in the regulations concerned. Appointments of the teachers are made to the school concerned directly and to the order of the city/town national education directorates by the Ministry. In case the appointment is made to the city/town order directly, it is then the task of the city/town directorate and approval of the governor to place the teachers to the schools Transfer of the teachers to another province is principally performed in summer season. However, teachers who moved from state schools to private schools lose their ‘civil servant’ status and cannot receive salary from the state. Their salaries are provided by the private institution concerned.
However, those who were appointed as contract-based teachers serve at least 6 years in their appointed schools, 4 years of which as contractual and 2 of which as a full-time teacher. Within this period, contractual teachers cannot ask for replacement or mobility. The mobility and transfer of the teachers who are not required in a given school is framed by the regulation concerned (18th Article) as follows:
(1) Closing of the educational institution or department, change in the educational program and exclusion of specific courses or a reduction in the employment field may result in more teachers than needed, and under such circumstances contractual teachers are regarded as ‘redundant’ initially.
(2) (Amended clause RG: 30370 / 24.03.2018) Contract teachers with surplus status are appointed by the governors to educational institutions in need of teachers in their fields within the province according to their superiority based on appointment by taking their requests and preferences into consideration; Those who do not need teachers in their fields within the province are appointed by the Ministry to educational institutions in need of teachers in areas other than the province according to their superiority based on appointment by taking into consideration their wishes and preferences. Contractual teachers' contracts shall be terminated if they do not accept the change in the place of duty foreseen according to this paragraph
Dismissal of teachers working as a civil servant can be executed in several ways. Those are: recognition of incompetence of carrying the qualifications of being a civil servant after appointment or losing one of the fundamental criterion during the service, leaving the post, will, age limit, sickness that hampers the service, or any similar reason that may lead to retirement and death (657, Law on Civil Servants.) In addition, Higher Discipline Board may end a servant post.
Those who were appointed as contractual teachers may be dismissed from their post on the condition that they do not acquire a criterion initially set by the laws concerned or failed to succeed in the annual performance evaluation that is carried out in parallel with the Regulation of MoNE Application and Mobility.
In case the teachers are redundant in their city and they do not accept a transfer in line with the 18th article, their contract is abolished.
Retirement and Pensions
Issues related to retirement (term of service, pension, age limit etc.) are regulated as per Retirement Fund Law (Emekli Sandığı Kanunu), No 5434. Pursuant to subparagraph 39/b of the Law (amendment in 1999), it is stated that contributors having completed 25 years’ actual service who are more than 58 years old if they are women and who are more than 60 if they are man can be retired on their own discretion. On the other hand, in accordance with the Law No 5510 retirement age limit for the public officials other than teaching staff in universities (including the teachers of MEB) is 65. However, in extraordinary cases (permanent illness, disability etc.) exceptional provisions exist. Person who deserves retirement is put on a salary in the context of indexes and multiples related with civil servants. In the condition like this, in a certain degree low salary is paid to those persons. Retirees can work in other occupations as depicted in the 5510th Law.