In 2022, 129 state, 76 foundation, and 5 higher vocational universities have been established in Turkish higher education system. The number of faculty staff in the state universities is 184.702, and it is expected to increase up to 200.000 in 2025.
Entry to the Profession
The criteria for appointment of the teaching staff are as follows:
Doctor Lecturer: Article 23 of the Higher Education Law regulates recruitment as doctor lecturer. The vacant position of doctor lecturer at a university is announced by the office of rector for the candidates to apply. The dean and related head shall submit their recommendations to the rector together with the recommendation of their own managements. Appointment is performed by the rector. The doctor lecturers may be recruited in a university up to 4 years. Contracts may be reassigned.
Conditions for recruitment as doctor lecturer:
- To have obtained doctorate degree or have qualifications in medicine or one of the defined branches of art,
- To have succeeded in the foreign language examination
- To compensate for the other specific criteria set by a given university
Associate professor: The vacant position of associated professor at a University is announced by the office of rector for the candidates to apply, stating the status as full time or part time position. Three professors are determined by the rector for evaluation of the candidates. These professors shall submit their individual ideas to the rector regarding the candidates. The rector shall perform the recruitment based on these ideas, together with the idea of the board of university administration (Higher Education Law, Article 24). In addition universities may empose extra criteria for this post.
For requirement as the associate professor, one needs to have the title of associated professor (For the title of associated professor, one needs to have passed the examination for the associated professor (Higher Education Law, Article 24).
Professor: Promotion and appointments to professorship are handled within the frame of 26 article of the above mentioned regulation.
- To have worked in the scientific field related with the vacant professor position at least for five years, after receiving the title of associated professor.
- To have conducted applicable studies and have published authentic articles at international level in the related scientific field.
- The rectors announce the vacant positions together with the qualifications required for the candidates indicating that position is permanent position or part-time position. In addition, universities can ask for further qualifications and research record in addition to those standardized by the Council of Higher Education.
For requirement as the full professorship (Act 26):
- To serve in the field of open professorship post at least five years after the associate professorship rank;
- To conduct original, novel and cutting-edge research studies in the field concerned both theoretically and practically at international level;
- The professorship posts to be appointed to the universities or higher technology institutions are announced by the rector's office.
- For determination of the scientific qualifications of the candidates having applied for the vacant professor position, at least five professors related to scientific area shall be appointed by the management of the university, at least three being from different universities. These professors shall each submit a report separately for each candidate and if there is more than one candidate for appointment in the staff, they indicate their preferences. In accordance with the resolution to be resolved by the management of the university in consideration of these reports, the rector shall perform the appointment.
Other teaching staffs: Lecturers, instructors, research assistant, experts, education planners. For the recruitment of the other teaching staff, the conditions stated in the Law No 657 (Civil Servants Law) shall be sought. Special conditions are indicated in relevant articles of the Higher Education Law (Article 31, 50). The recruitments for these positions shall be generally made for a term of one or two years. In case of continuity of the necessity, the term of appointment shall be extended. The final decision regarding the appointment of this group of staff belongs to the rector of the universities.
“Associated professors” and “professors” among the teaching staff in higher education institutions in Turkey are employed in the status of permanent position. Their work status is secured permanently by law (Higher Education Law/Yükseköğretim Kanunu, Article 36). Other teaching staff (categorized under the common rank: teaching officer or lecturer) are employed on the contractual basis. They can be employed again when their term of contract is completed.
Index table and parameters within the Civil Servants Law (Devlet Memurları Kanunu), No. 657 are taken into consideration in determining salaries of teaching staff working in higher education institutions. Additional index figures stated in Law on Higher Education Personnel (Yükseköğretim Personel Kanunu), No 2914 are also considered while salaries are determined. In case required provisions are not included in this specific law, procedures are executed pursuant to Laws No 2547 (Higher Education Law/Yükseköğretim Kanunu) and 657 (Civil Servants Law). Other than basic salary payment to teaching staff, some additional payment are made considering factors such as titles, course loads, working stations, administrative positions etc. (additional course wage, fund of university, fund of development, administrative post fund, revolving fund share etc.) (Law on Higher Education Personnel, Articles 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, Additional Article 4). Teaching staff of higher education also enjoy social rights and foreign language amends provided to the other civil servants under Law No. 657 (Article 10).
Working Time and Holidays
In accordance with the Higher Education Law (Yükseköğretim Kanunu) (Article 22); the teaching are responsible for performing the teaching, research duties and other duties to be given by the management.Faculty staff work on permanent basis at universities. Compulsory weekly taught time (hours in response to salary) of faculty staff is 10 hours and it is 12 hours for other teaching staff (Article 36/d, e).They normally take their annual vacation in non-teaching periods at univerities. Teaching staff are subject to the 657th Law in relation with the annual vacations (Higher Education Law, Article 64).
Promotion of teaching staff in the higher education institutions is regulated as per Higher Education Law (Yükseköğretim Kanunu), Articles: 24 and 26. According to this regulation, there are three career ladders in tertiary education. These are doctor lecturer, associate professorship and professorship and the minimum requirements for appointment of the teach post are determined by the Council. Universities may ask for extra criteria in addition to those set by the Council. Additionally, academic administrative positions in the tertiary education institutions (rectorate, deanery, directorate, headship of department, etc.) are open to all academic staff having required conditions.
Retirement and Pensions
Retirement age limit for the university faculty staff is determined by the Law 2547, Article 30 as 67. Retirement age for the academicians have been increased to 75 in the universities established via 5467th in 1/3/2006 and 5462nd in 17/05/2007 and 5765th in 22/05/2008 Laws and only up to the date 31/12/2020.