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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Historical development


1.Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

1.1Historical development

Last update: 27 November 2023

Modern Greek history begins with the Greek War of Independence in 1821 and the establishment of Greece as an autonomous state in 1828.  Between 1832 and 1974, the Greek State was a kingdom with periods of interregnum and since 1974, the system of government is Presidential Parliamentary Republic.  In June 1975, the Parliament voted the Constitution in force, which has been revised four times (in 1986, 2001, 2008 and 2019) in a limited number of provisions.

Greece’s European orientation predates its accession negotiations for joining the European Community/Union. However, it was fully demonstrated after the country submitted a membership application for entering the newly established European Economic Community (EEC), in June 1959. The application led to the Association Agreement with the EEC signed in June 1961.  In fact, this Agreement was the first step in Greek modern history towards entering the European Community.  However, it “froze” due to the military junta (April 1967), but re-entered into force after the restoration of democracy (July 1974).  On 12 June 1975, the country applied for membership to the European Economic Community (EEC).  The Treaty of Accession was signed on 28 May 1979 and entered into force on 1 January 1981.  On 1 January 2002, Greece joined the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).

Since 1945, Greece is one of the 51 founding members of the United Nations (UN).  It is also a member of the:

Greece has signed a plethora of bilateral and multilateral agreements.  As an EU member, it participates in all EU collaborations with other organisations and member states.