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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Other dimensions of internationalisation in higher education


13.Mobility and internationalisation

13.5Other dimensions of internationalisation in higher education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Global and Intercultural Dimension in Curriculum Development

Turkey is a member of the Process of Bologna which started in 1999 in order to increase the process of “transparency” “familiarity” and “mobility” levels from 2001 onwards. 

According to the Bologna Process Implementation Report 2018, ECTS, the Diploma Supplement, Qualifications Framework applications related to Turkey's report card grade is 5 out of 5.

Our country is the second country with the highest number of students in the European Higher Education Area in terms of the number of students in higher education.

With the relevant article of the "Higher Education Quality Assurance Regulation" published in the Official Gazette on July 23, 2015, "Higher Education Quality Board was established.

  • The studies of establishing Turkey Higher Education Qualifications Frameworks were initiated in 2006 with the regulation of Council of Higher Education (The Decree of Presidency of Higher Education, March 28, 2006 and No 2006/8). The studies were carried out by Commission and Working Groups formed nationally in the coordination of Council of HE.
  • Associate, undergraduate, master and doctorate proficiencies that were determined as a draft by General Assembly resolution by Council of Higher Education on May 21, 2009 was accepted. The Draft European Qualifications Framework were completed in 2009 in accordance with European Qualifications Framework. As a result of counselling processes and national discussions containing the representatives of ministries and student councils, Turkey Higher Education Qualifications Framework was endorsed by Council of Higher Education on January 21, 2010. Official website of TYYC offering the developments and updated information with regard to TYYC to high education institutions and partners was constructed in 2011. This site is not active at the moment. The information in this site was transferred to the qualifications part at UAI web page.
  • The application process was officially initiated with the resolution of CoHE General Assembly on January 13, 2011, the mentioned resolution was sent to all higher education institutions with an official letter on February 1, 2011 and 4 pilot universities (İzmir Economics University, Anadolu University, Sakarya University and Karadeniz Technical University) were chosen and works were started.
  • "The Regulation about the Principles and Rules for Turkish Qualifications Framework" was published on 19/11/2015, with certain references to higher education. National discussions and studies on "Turkish Referencing Report" that will integrate the Turkish National Qualifications Framework and European Higher Education Qualifications Framework are currently ongoing in 2016

The Turkish Proficiency Framework (TQM), developed under the responsibility of Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA), is referenced to the European Qualifications Framework (TQM), which is used to compare education and qualification systems at European level. This will facilitate and increase our citizens' access to education and employment opportunities at European level.

In 2015, the TCF was published in the Official Gazette and started to be referenced. The work has been conducted in active business association and communication with ministries, public institutions, professional organizations, workers 'and employers' unions, student councils and non-governmental organizations, in particular the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and the Higher Education Council. In other words, the Turkish Referral Report, which shows the compatibility of the NQA with the NQA, was communicated to the European Commission at the end of 2016 by the NQA National Coordination Point, the NQA. The Turkish Referral Report was presented and discussed in the AYÇ Advisory Group on 29 March 2017 in Brussels. The Turkish Referral Report was evaluated by the EYC Advisory Group as an open, transparent and reliable study, and as a result of the negotiations it was decided that the EYC was referred to the EYC.

Lisbon Convention of “Recognition of Documents Regarding Higher Education at European Region”, signed by Turkey on 1 December 2004, was endorsed on 23 February 2006 and with a No of 5463, and it was published in Official Newspaper and put into effect on 28 February 2006  with number 26094. "Overseas Higher Education Diplomas Equivalency Regulation" was prepared in order to eliminate the conflicts between the contract and national legislation. The regulation has been in force since 11 May 2007 and is updated from time to time. "The Regulation on Recognition and Equivalence of Foreign Higher Education Diplomas" was updated and published in the Official Gazette dated December 5, 2017 and numbered 30261. The aforementioned updated Regulation, Article 7 of the Higher Education Law dated 4/11/1981 and numbered 2547, and the Convention on the Recognition of Documents Related to Higher Education in the European Region dated 11/4/1997, which was approved by Law No 5463 dated 23/2/2006 and 23/2 / dated 2011 and located in accordance with the approved Law No. 6165 dated 01.16.2009 of the Republic of Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Established by Law with the University has been prepared based on the provisions of the International Convention on the Mutual Recognition.

Bologna Process applications in our country between 2005 -2013 were carried out within the content of Bologna Experts National Team Projects backed up by European Commission. In the context of 2011-2013 Bologna Experts National Team Project corresponding the sixth period over the application of the process in Turkey, there were activities aiming at the application and strengthening of Bologna Process in higher education institutions as a continuation of the former period. In this sense, some regional visits-on-site, partner meetings, seminars, workshops were carried out (2022 February, Turkish National Agency). 

In order to encourage, facilitate and internalize the implementation of European Higher Education Area (EHEA) reforms, the Erasmus + KA3 Program calls for the European Commission to invite Member States and Candidate Countries in 2016 with the project number EACEA / 28/2016, to which only the higher education authority The Board's application was accepted with a high score and was worthy of support. It is envisaged that this project titled "Implementation and Sustainability of European Higher Education Area Reforms in the Turkish Higher Education System" (short name: "TURQUAS") will be completed within two years.

The Project has made a great contribution to;

  • Increasing awareness of quality assurance in our higher education institutions and ensuring dissemination and internalization of quality cultures,
  • Extension of the institutional external evaluation process in higher education institutions,
  • Ensuring extension of the process to all areas for program accreditation,
  • Quality-based Improvement of learning and teaching processes,
  • To disseminating the ECTS and Diploma Supplement applications in higher education institutions and raise awareness within the scope of the subject,
  • Improvement and awareness-raising in higher education institutions regarding recognition and equivalence processes,
  • Increasing and expanding business alliance opportunities for degree and credit system, common quality assurance standards, mobility and joint diploma programs
  • Encouraging the employability of graduates from higher education,
  • Increasing the inclusiveness of the disadvantaged groups of the higher education system (including those with disabilities, migrant children, etc.)

It is also important that this project will facilitate the overlap of the objectives of our higher education system with the objectives of the European Higher Education Area, contribute to the actions and reporting we need to complete by 2018 as a country including the Bologna Process, and more importantly to establish and internalize a sustainable higher education quality assurance system is expected to be achieved. The general information about the project and the activities to be carried out within the scope of the project can be reached from the project web page.

Partnerships and Networks

The most important partner of Turkish higher education system today is the EU. With collective agreements, such studies as student and lecturer transfers, student visits at all stages of higher education and semester training opportunities have increased in the last ten years. Other than the studies carried out with EU, Fulbright Courses supplied by the USA Foreign Exchange Commission and various partnerships, even though it is not many, have been provided with the agreements made by both MoNE and CoHE in various countries.

Mevlana Exchange Program is a program that makes possible the exchange of students and teaching staff between higher education institutions providing education in Turkey and higher education institutions providing education abroad. With the Regulation published in the Official Gazette dated August 23, 2011 and numbered 28034, the exchange of students and teaching staff between the higher education institutions abroad and the higher education institutions in our country has been opened. Unlike other exchange programs, mobility within the exchange program encompasses universities all over the world, without any geographical separation.

In line with the resolutions in the Regulation for Civil Servants to be Sent Abroad for Training, institutions are given contingencies in order that civil servants could have training of post-graduation (master, doctorate). Among the criteria the institutions use in the selections of the ones to be sent abroad are the service period of the candidate and foreign language scores (YDS, TOEFL, IELTS). The personnel sent abroad by financing with the budget capacities are responsible for serving as the two-fold period of the duration they stay abroad. For details please visit the link.

Jean Monnet activities within the Erasmus+ are known as the ones that promote excellence in teaching and research. The major topic areas of this program are: EU and Comparative Regional Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Interdisciplinary Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy, EU law Studies and EU Political and Administrative Studies. The duration of the projects depend on the activity, submitting institution (2022 February, Turkish National Agency).