Curriculum, Subjects and Number of Hours
Teaching programs are prepared centrally and all schools apply the same teaching programs. Teaching programs are prepared by the related units or the Board of Education and put into effect with the approval of the Minister. Courses are taught in Turkish language in primary education. Teaching programs are reviewed and updated by the Board of Education and related units when necessary.
The courses in the program are divided into two as compulsory and elective. The courses and timetables are arranged with the principle of classes. For the number and hours of classes for classes, see the chart dated 23.12.2021 and numbered 49.
In Primary education (primary-secondary), weekly program is 30 hours in primary school. In the first year, 26 hours are compulsory courses and 4 hours are free activities, in 2nd and 3rd years, compulsory courses are 28 hours and free activities are 2 hours. In the 4th grade, 30 hours are compulsory. Weekly course hours in secondary school are 35 hours in total, 29 of which are compulsory and 6 hours are elective courses.
The weekly program for religious secondary schools is comprised of 36 hours. Compulsory courses are 36 hours in the 5th, 6th and 7th grades and 1 hour is elective course. In the 8th grade, compulsory courses are 34 hours and 2 hours are elective courses.
The total number of hours per week in the special education classes consisting of the students who have visual, hearing, orthopedic disability and mild mental disability and the hours in the special education classes of these students is 30 hours in primary education and 35 in secondary schools. The curricula of special education courses are also implemented. The Special Education Practice Center (I and II Tier), where students with moderate and / or severe mental disabilities are educated, has 30 hours per week. The programs are special education programs which are prepared completely according to the characteristics of the students.
Teaching Methods and Materials
Primary education (primary-secondary) methods and techniques in the organization are determined by the teacher. Every teacher is responsible for making necessary preliminary studies based on the curricula related with their course. School textbooks to be used during education are determined by the Ministry of Nationa lEducation (National Education Basic Law, Article 55). All official and private elementary and middle school students’ textbooks are determined by the Ministry and are distributed free. Textbooks, tools and quality of materials, their preparation, analysis and evaluation and similar issues are regulated according to the "Regulation on Textbooks and Educational Materials" (Official Gazette No. 31628 dated 14 October 2021).
For the textbook training tools to be used, it is essential not to contradict the law and the National Basic Objectives of Education and Primary education (primary-secondary school). Similarly, investigating all educational tools and devices in institutions, and preparing lessons or auxiliary textbooks to enhance the program are regulated through Presidential Decree No. 1, Article 319. The Basic Law (Article 55) and the Chairman of the Board of Education (BOE) are given. In addition, at least one project is prepared by students in the form of individual or group work through teacher guidance in the secondary school and theology secondary school (Regulation of Ministry of Education Early Childhood Education and Primary Education Institutions, Article 22).
The books of the schools where the visually impaired students are educated in the special education classes are printed in Braille and distributed to the students free of charge. Materials including braille tablets, writing pens, abacus, cubes etc. used in schools where visually impaired students are educated are provided free of charge to students.
There are educational tools within the framework of the curriculum for schools that implement special education programs where students with special educational needs continue. These educational tools are sent every year in print, in line with the demands of schools, and are also shared digitally. In addition, there are auxiliary resources for all students with special education needs, regardless of the type of school they attend, and these resources are delivered to students in print and digitally.