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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Other dimensions of internationalisation in early childhood and school education


13.Mobility and internationalisation

13.4Other dimensions of internationalisation in early childhood and school education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Global and Intercultural Dimension in Curriculum Development

The objective of the compulsory education for 12 years that was put into effect from the educational year of 2012 – 2013 onwards is to increase the mean educational level of our country, train a generation that will compete with their global contemporaries, developing 21st century skills and creating opportunities for students in order to help them discover their own interests and skills and improve them. In the Weekly Course Schedule of the Primary Education Institutions that was updated for that reason, students could choose 17 compulsory and also 21 elective courses in line with their interests and wishes. During the update/development and preparation process of the course books, a cooperation is carried out with various institutions, universities and non-governmental organizations.

However, under the foreign language course, which is among the elective courses, the languages accepted by the decision of the Council of Ministers are English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, etc. lessons; Under the “Living Languages and Dialects” course, Adyghe (Cyrillic script), Adyghe (Latin Alphabet), Abazin, Kurmanian, Zazaki, Laz, Georgian, Albanian, Bosnian courses, and also under Visual Arts, Painting, Graphic Design, Ceramics, Ebru , Illumination, Miniature; General Music Education, Baglama, Guitar, Violin, Piano, Lute and Turkish Folk Music Chorus under the music lesson; Under the Sports and Physical Activities course, the modules of Basketball, Athletics, Archery, Swimming, Cycling, and Tennis are offered to our students as an elective course.

In the updated education programmes;

In order to acquire functional knowledge, it is aimed to simplify the subjects, to bring the basic skills and competences defined in international and national documents to the students and to bring universal values and national and moral values which are the common stake of the humanities of the students.


-The connection of the course with daily life was strengthened,

-A focus on basic skill development was obtained,

-The outcomes were updated in terms of scientific and social developments

-The outcomes were arranged in a way to allow analytic thinking skills and 21st century skills,

-The outcomes and content were simplified in a way to facilitate reading, perception and application and at the same time to provide flexibility for those applying it (ME GDBE).

-Flexibility was obtained in the application of weekly schedule and language learning opportunity was given to 5th grade students up to 18 hours in order to support the improvement of foreign language.

In addition, while foreign language training used to start at the 4th grade before the Law with No of 6287, it was decided to start at the 2nd grade from the academic year of 2012 – 2013 onwards. On the other hand, in order to provide the improvement of active listening and speaking skills rather than a grammar based training in English learning, the English Language Training System of DynEd, which was applied in all official primary education institutions at 4 8th grades, was initiated for the use of 9 – 12th grade students from the academic year of 2008 – 2009. 

In addition, studies are continuing to teach foreign languages at a level where students can communicate in written and verbal ways. In this context, a foreign language-based education will be given by voluntary schools in the 5th grade of secondary school, and a draft curriculum and alternative course materials have been prepared and made available to the teachers.

The objectives of the Ministry of National Education for the training system were included in the Mid-Term Program prepared by the Ministry of Development (2015 -2017). The objective of “a transformation improving the personalities and skills of individuals in an educational system, strengthening their compliance with the workforce within the framework of lifelong learning approach depending on the equality of opportunity and focusing on quality will be maintained” was given in this program. 

With the flexibility provided in the implementation of weekly course hours, it is aimed to improve foreign language teaching. According to article 7 of the "Explanations" section of the Chart; On the condition of completing Turkish, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Religious Culture and Ethics lessons (20 lesson hours) and at least four (4) hours of elective courses in the fifth grade by the school directorates, optionally eighteen (one) Foreign language lessons can be taught until the 18th class. In the 5th grade, students were given the opportunity to learn a foreign language for up to 18 hours. While foreign language teaching started from the 4th grade before the Law No. 6287, it started to be given from the 2nd grade as of the 2012-2013 academic year.

Partnerships and Networks

Within the context of the relations between MoNE and EU; cooperation at various headings are aimed in such issues as the activity of mobility and youth, the opportunities of foreign education and exchange, innovative education and training project opportunities, an application of a common vocational education policy, spreading vocational education, supporting the chances of quality and access at education and particularly lifelong learning. Introductory Screening Meeting regarding the Chapter for Education and Culture with number of 26 was held on October 26, in 2005. The Detailed Screening Meeting was held November 16, 2005. Within the framework of Final Screening Report prepared by the commission and endorsed by the Council, the EU harmonization process of Turkey was found adequate. Even though Turkey presented Negotiation Position Document on May 25, 2006, chapter negotiations were not opened. There was no barrier to open the chapter. In fact, it was pointed out in the Progress Report that Turkey is relatively advanced in the field of education and culture in 2014 Progression Report. 

The aim is to increase participation in the Unity Programs in Educations and Culture that would strengthen the integration between Turkey and the EU. The education and youth programs of European Union have been carried out by the Centre of European Union Education and Youth Programs from 2004 onwards. Turkish National Agency has been acting as the associated institution of the Ministry of European Union (2022 February, Turkish National Agency). Within the content of mentioned programs, almost one hundred thousand project applications were taken between the years 2003 – 2014 and nearly 31 thousand projects were granted over1. 2 billion Euros. Preparation of national professional standards and national qualifications within the framework of the regulations published at the end of 2015 and examination and evaluation of the applications of certification bodies by VQA within the scope of national qualifications; work on the inspection, measurement, evaluation and FMC Professional Qualification Certificate of the institutions are being continued. (Vocational Technical Education Directorate).

The Ministry of National Education is aiming to achieve the objectives of secondary education and higher education system aimed at achieving a valid occupation for employment in line with the needs of business life and the European Union's common objectives in education and training. Lifelong learning approach is considered in this study. Particularly in the basic education, overcoming the problems arising from gender and quality differences, taking the measures to decrease the school dropout rate in secondary education while achieving the schooling in basic education to 100% target and increasing the resources are the most important conditions for increasing access and quality. Work on the establishment of "National Vocational Standards" was carried out together with the Ministry of Labour and Social Security. In this framework, Vocational Qualifications Authority Law No. 5544 was accepted and enacted in 2006 in the Parliament and institutionalization process started (MEB 2010 Budget Report) (Basic Education, General Administration of Occupational Technology).

Preparation of national professional standards and national qualifications within the framework of the regulations published at the end of 2015 and examination and evaluation of the applications of certification bodies by VQA within the scope of national qualifications; work on the inspection, measurement, evaluation and FMC Professional Qualification Certificate of the institutions are being continued (General Directorate of Vocational Technical Education).

The Turkish Proficiency Framework (TQM), developed under the responsibility of Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA), is referenced to the European Qualifications Framework (EQF), which is used to compare education and qualification systems at European level. This will facilitate and increase our citizens' access to education and employment opportunities at European level (2022 February, Turkish National Agency).

In 2015, the Turkish Qualifications Framework was published in the Official Gazette and started to be referenced. The work has been conducted in active business association and communication with ministries, public institutions, professional organizations, workers 'and employers' unions, student councils and non-governmental organizations, in particular the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and the Higher Education Council. In other words, the Turkish Referral Report, which shows the compatibility of the NQA with the NQA, was communicated to the European Commission at the end of 2016 by the NQA National Coordination Point, the NQA. The Turkish Referral Report was presented and discussed in the AYÇ Advisory Group on 29 March 2017 in Brussels. The Turkish Referral Report was evaluated by the EYC Advisory Group as an open, transparent and reliable study, and as a result of the negotiations it was decided that the EYC was referred to the EYC.

The works of Turkey Qualifications Framework were updated in compatible with European Qualifications Framework. Within the context of Credit Transfer System in Vocational and Technical Education that is in compatible with European Qualifications Framework, Europass Certificate in 62 fields and 226 branches that is applied in Vocational and Technical Schools was prepared and each student completing the training successfully from 2013 -2014 educational year onward has been given a diploma and the addendum of EUROPASS certificate and also a document showing the course they succeed, the module and credits

Up to the year 2015, 19 projects with a budget of 1.446 billion dollars were completed by the Ministry of Education within the context of international cooperation.