Basic Characteristics of Education System
The Ministry of National Education (MoNE) conducts educational activities on a central level in the Republic of Turkey.
The cycles of education is made up of Early Childhood, Primary and Lower Secondary, Upper Secondary and Higher Education.
The first stage is a 4-year primary school (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade), the second stage is a 4-year lower secondary school (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade) and third-tier, four-year is an upper secondary school (9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grade). In addition, early childhood education is also compulsory along with the primary and secondary education for the individuals who are in need of special education.
Onwards the 2012-13 academic year compulsory education in Turkey increased to 12 years is divided into three stages.
The first stage is 4 years of primary school (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade), the second stage is 4 years of secondary school (5th 6th, 7th and 8th grade) and the third stage is 4-year high school (9th 10th 11th). and 12th grade).
Stages of the education system
Early Childhood Education in our country covers the Nursery and Day Care Centres for children of 0-36 months, which operates under the auspices of the General Directorate of Children Services of the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services. In addition, there are early childhood educational centres in special education kindergartens, which operate under the auspices of the General Directorate of the Special Education and Guidance Services for 0-36-month-old children who are in need of special education.
Children aged 57-68 months are enrolled in kindergarten, nursery class and practice classes as of the end of September of the year in which the registration is made. After the registration of children residing in the registration area of the school and starting primary school in the next academic year, 36-56 months old children can be registered in kindergarten and practice classes, and 45-56 months old children in kindergarten classes with sufficient physical facilities. (Regulation on Preschool Education and Primary Education Institutions). Article 11-5/a). Pre-school education is carried out under the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Basic Education.
Primary school education covers children of 69 months and 10 year-old and is the responsibility of the General Directorate of Basic Education, the Ministry of National Education. In addition, early childhood education is also compulsory along with the primary and secondary education for the students who are in need of special education.
Secondary education, namely religious school and secondary school, covers children of 10 to 14 years old. The actions of the General Directorate of Basic Education and Secondary Education and religious secondary schools are carried out under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Religious Education in the Ministry. In addition, early childhood education is also compulsory along with the primary and secondary education for the students who are in need of special education.
Upper Secondary Education covers Anatolian High School, Science High School, School of Fine Arts, Sports High School, School of Social Sciences, the Anatolian Religious High Schools and High Schools conducting vocational and technical programs. Such training is aimed at children aged 14 to 18 years and at those who are above 18 in Vocational Education Centres and it is the responsibility of General Directorate of Secondary Education, the General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education and General Directorate of Religious Education. Furthermore, schools conducting special training programs for the training of persons with disabilities and special educational institutions are under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Secondary and High School Level and Special Education and Guidance Services.
In addition, the education of the individuals with special needs are carried out at Special Vocational Education Centres, Special Education Vocational Schools and at Special Education Vocational Practice Schools, all of which are run by General Directorate of the Special Education and Guidance Services of the Ministry of National Education.
ISCED 5, ISCED 6, ISCED 7
Higher education includes individuals over the age of 17 and is made up of state and foundation universities. Higher Education in Turkey constitutes associate, bachelors, masters and doctoral programs, provided by the tertiary education institutions. The Council of Higher Education is responsible for the regulation of all activities related to higher education.
Structure of the National Education System
Common European Reference Tools Provided by the Eurydice Network
- National Student Fee and Support Systems
- Organisation of the Academic Year in Higher Education
- Organisation of School Time in Europe (Primary and general secondary education)
- Recommended Annual Instruction Time in Full-Time Compulsory Education in Europe (Presented by grades/stages for full time compulsory education as well as by subject and country)
- Teachers and School Heads Salaries and Allowances in Europe (Salaries and allowances of teachers and school heads at pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education levels)