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Teaching and learning in vocational upper secondary education


6.Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Education

6.5Teaching and learning in vocational upper secondary education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Curriculum, Subjects and Class Hours 

In vocational and technical secondary education, students come to the 9th grade having chosen the profession that suits their interests, wishes and abilities. 

10th students in the class are allocated to the 11th grade and in the 12th grade and graduate and attend to these branches. However, in the Anatolian technical programs, the student is placed directly in the 9th grade in accordance with the central exam score and the preferences of the students. According to the type of school designated by the public courses of the Ministry in the upper secondary education level, branch/field courses and elective courses are available. Common courses in 9th and 10th grade in vocational and technical secondary schools include the following: Language and Speech, Turkish Literature, Religious Culture, and Moral Knowledge, History, Geography, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Health Information, First Foreign Language, Physical Education, Visual Arts / Music. Elective Courses in Language and Speech, Mathematics and Science, Social Science, Religion, Ethics and Values, Foreign Languages and Literature, Sports and Social Events, Fine Arts and learn lessons from the IT group is located. Anatolian Vocational and Technical High School in the 10th grade is added in different classes according to the area listed above.  Since class 11 shows compulsory and elective courses, the student diversity is essential. Turkish, Mathematics and Occupational Mathematics, Religion Culture and Occupational Ethics, Total Quality Management and Business Information and Professional Development Courses are taught in vocational training centers. Teaching curriculum, labor market needs analysis, national occupational standards, national qualifications, international standards and classifications, technological and economic developments concerning vocational and technical education and their subfields are prepared jointly by the university, relevant non-governmental organizations, and field experts and are updated. Vocational and technical education programs, considering classifications like ISCED and FOED to ensure national and international comparability, are developing to provide broad-based and branch specialization. In the 2015/16 training year, education/training activities are still carried out in 52 areas, 204 branches. For the vocational training centers, students choose the area/branch after the 9th grade. Vocational and technical education programs are being developed in a way to ensure broad-based, field-oriented and diachronic achievements, taking into account classifications such as ISCED F and FOED in order to ensure national and international comparability. In the vocational training centers, 2016-2017 education year, 31 areas and 152 branches are taught. Starting from the 2017-2018 academic year, there are planned 27 education programs in 14 areas. Vocational education center framework teaching programs were updated in 2021 and put into practice in 34 fields and 184 branches from the 2021-2022 academic year.

The weekly course schedule of the special education vocational high school students with hearing impairment and the programs applied in these high school is the same as the vocational and technical secondary education programs that the normal development students continue. Students with hearing impairment are exempted from foreign language classes.

In the special education vocational schools, which were opened for the purpose of acquiring professional skills as well as academic skills for students with mild intellectual disability and visual impairment, the weekly course hours are 30 hours, all of which are compulsory. There is a 15-hour "business education and professional ethics" course to prepare students for work and profession. Handicraft Technology, Construction Technology, Chemical Technology, Printing Technology, Metal Technology, Furniture and Interior Design, Motor Vehicle Technology, Ceramic and Glass Technology, Textile Technology, Installation Technology, Food Technology, Accommodation Services, within the scope of business education and professional ethics course, Training is provided in 18 professions, namely Beauty and Hair Care Services, Agriculture, Food and Beverage Services, Information Technologies, Office Management and Clothing Production Technology.

The weekly course schedule for the 3rd level of special education practice schools, where students with moderate and/or severe mental disabilities and students with autism are educated, is 30 hours. Special education practice schools In the 3rd level, besides academic knowledge and skills, job and skill practice training is also provided. Based on this program, an IEP is prepared, and the goals and behaviors included in the IEPs are taken into account in evaluating the success of individuals.


Teaching Methods and Materials

Every teacher is responsible for making necessary preliminary studies based on the curriculums related to their course. In principle, every teacher in secondary education institutions drafts an annual plan for the rendered courses at the beginning of the academic year, which is ratified by the principle. The daily plans are conducted according to the annual plan. Each program for every course is like a teacher’s map. Teachers are allowed to employ visual tools such as video, slide, tape-radio, overhead projector, television, etc. However, this equipment does not exist in all schools. Most of the schools must be fitted with the internet and information technology tools for the use of teachers and pupils. The general objectives of the program courses include units, located on the achievements and topics of each unit. The program also includes examples of activities with the description and examples of process arrangement and evaluation. The coursebook is a guide for teachers. These programs have to be drafted on the basis. Textbooks approved by the Ministry of National Education at all levels of education (public/private schools) are distributed free to students.

Students carry out projects and performance studies other than written tests depending on the features of schools, as well as such studies as seminars, conferences and so on aiming at activities for public services. Students carry out at least one performance study for all courses in a semester and prepare a project work at least for one course in an academic year. As for Anatolian Imam Hatip high schools, ayahs and hadiths are memorized in vocational courses and also they rehearse for the courses of oratory and vocational practice in mosques and Quranic courses, detail of which is given in the official internet site

Textbooks/educational tools for field and branch courses in the field/branch framework curriculum implemented in vocational and technical secondary education, updated in 2020, are prepared by the Ministry of National Education and are made available for use in electronic and printed form for students, teachers, the public and the relevant sector.

There are educational tools within the framework of the curriculum for schools that implement special education programs where students with special educational needs continue. These educational tools are sent every year in print, in line with the demands of schools, and are also shared digitally. In addition, there are auxiliary resources for all students with special education needs, regardless of the type of school they attend, and these resources are delivered to students in print and digitally.