Types of Institutions
According to ISCED level 3, this type of education is based on a minimum of a four-year course in primary education. These institutions, "general secondary education" and "vocational and technical education" are divided into two types. Vocational and technical secondary schools; "Vocational and Technical High School" on "Multi-Program High School" and "are the Vocational Training Centres". Since the 2018-2019 academic year, Fine Arts High Schools and Sports High Schools have been attached to the General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education. Vocational and technical education aims to prepare students for higher education and/or business life by giving a common general culture in line with their interests and abilities in a flexible structure, as well as educating students as good citizens.
Constitution (1982) and the National Education Basic Law ensure that all children benefit from primary education to secondary education and get financial support at the highest levels of education in order to receive education grants, scholarships, loans and other ways to make the necessary assistance available to those who need (Constitution, Article 42; National Education Basic Law, Article 8 and 27). In the context of this legal framework, The Ministry of National Education opens and operates schools in the geographical features of the region where students live regardless of their individual, social and economic status and offer accessible secondary education services to all citizens in the country. All provinces and districts throughout the country have various secondary schools in all residential units above a certain number (at least one). Secondary school students who are experiencing difficulties in terms of transportation and the lack of financial facilities are supported by the Ministry of National Education in order to get successful students to continue their education. The expenses are completely covered by the Ministry.
In order to ensure equal access to compulsory education, student mobility is carried out (Regulation on Access to Education through MEB Transportation). According to the relevant regulation, there is no public transport service, the students will be covered in the selection of the school and the settlement of the population to be less or scattered, the number of students, the geographical characteristics of the settlement, road conditions, the student in need of access to education in a permanent or temporary residence in the settlement will meet this need. The emergence of sudden and unexpected incidents such as the absence of educational institutions or the presence of such institutions, natural disasters, epidemics, the danger of loss of life and property and / or the work of repair, strengthening, disposal or treatment as a result of these events, migrations and seasonal labor movements might be considered such factors. In secondary education institutions, free family support is provided to the students who are deprived of their financial means in accordance with the quota determined by the Ministry.
Admission Requirements and Choice of Schools
The registrations of students in the 8th grade of science high schools, social sciences high schools, project-implementing educational institutions and vocational and technical Anatolian high schools in the technical programs of Anatolia to be placed in the Ministry of science high schools which take students with a central examination and central examination, social sciences high schools, educational institutions, and vocational and technical Anatolian high schools apart from the Anatolian technical programs, secondary education and secondary education institutions according to the principles and procedures determined by the guidelines of secondary education institutions are carried out taking into account the secondary education records. The explanations related to applications, preferences, placement, and records related to the transition to secondary education institutions are stated in the guidelines to be published by the Ministry each year and announced to the public electronically.
The central examination is optional. The exam consists of two parts: verbal and numerical. In the verbal section, the questions about Turkish, religious culture and ethics, T.C. history of revolution and Kemalism and foreign language are asked, whereas in the numerical section, there are questions about mathematics and science. The exam will be applied in two sessions on the same day. The date, place, application and other issues of the exam are stated in the guide to be prepared by the General Directorate of Measurement, Evaluation and Examination Services every year.
Students who have completed the 8th grade of Fine Arts and Sports High School, secondary school and Imam Hatip Secondary School with the talent test apply to the school directorate via e-school. Those who complete the Temporary Training Center apply to the school directorate about the application, a photo and a secondary school achievement score. The ability examination for student selection is done by commissions on a department basis. The students who need special education and who will receive education through mainstreaming and foreign students who are under temporary protection are taken by the commission between the students. (2018/11 Circular on Application to Students with Student Exam.
In order to enroll in secondary schools, students must be 18 years old and complete their secondary and religious secondary schools. Students who move the age requirement of formal secondary schools are not registered. The age limit is not sought for those who have not given up on their education, but at the end of the 22-year school year, the students who are not graduated from the school will be transferred to open education institutions or vocational training centers. However, this provision is not applicable to vocational training centers students. Special education vocational training center and special education job application center is made of the records of individuals who have not received the special education needs. Registration is made based on the information in the student's e-school system. Those who are married are not enrolled. Those who get married during their education are sent to Vocational High Schools via e-School. However, this provision does not apply to VET students. However, this provision is not applicable to vocational training centers students. According to Article 15 of Occupational Health and Safety Law No. 6331, who has completed at least a secondary school / imam-hatip secondary school or signed a contract with an enterprise, it shows that the state of health is suitable for the field of occupation which he wants to enter. Students are registered via the e-MESEM module.
Age Levels and Grouping of Children
In Turkey, secondary education lasts 4 years and constitutes the final stage of the 12 year-compulsory education. Upper-secondary education begins at the age of 14 and ends at 17. In order to enroll in upper-secondary schools, students have to complete a secondary school and be not older than 18. The age limit is not sought for those who have not given up on their education, but at the end of the 22-year school year, the students who are not graduated from the school will be transferred to open education institutions or vocational training centers. However, this provision is not applicable to vocational training centers students. Students without the age condition are not allowed to enroll in the schools. Enrolment is made on the basis of the information provided in the e-school system. Married students are not allowed to study in secondary education schools. Students who get married have to be expelled from the schools, and they are placed in vocational open education institutions or open education high schools by the Ministry.
In this stage, education is conducted by the field-specific teachers, vocational teachers, and workshop teachers. School teachers are responsible for helping them to address students’ different needs. Grouping of children is identified as 30 students in Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools, Multiprogramming Anatolian High Schools, and Anatolian Religious High Schools and 30 in Anatolian High Schools and other school types.
Organization of the School Year
Education school year and school week are organized in the form of school days and school hours. Education begins in September and ends in June. The academic year is divided into two semesters. The start of the school year, the dates of the first semester, second-semester summer vacation and courses are determined by the Ministry of National Education. It should not be less 180 working days of the school year. This concept of working hours can be altered especially in vocational and technical highs schools which operate apprenticeship and skills training. All holidays and breaks are determined by the Ministry of National Education. Each class of theoretical and practical training can also be condensed. Intensive training of the work schedule and the training course are held in a period not less than the total number of hours of a school year. The principles and procedures of intensive education carried out in collaboration with institutions and organizations are determined by a protocol between the corporate headquarters of the company officials. Taking into account the characteristics of the sector, working conditions and capacity, school environment and climatic conditions, children who have completed their common courses in the 10th grade within the food and beverage services, accommodation and travel services, entertainment services areas, maritime areas of the yacht captain branches will be able to get their training related to 11th and 12nd grade classes in the company’s branches at certain times of the year. In the workplace where a sufficient number of businesses is available in those filed/branches, students can continue their education without condensed education in their vocational training practice centers. When the date of the time students at the school or in the workplace will get an education is determined, the average six-month time training in both units is allocated. This period, if considered by the governor, still can change. However, overall, it is essential that the students spend their time in a school year without interruption between the first week of October in the period and the second week of April at school and in business in other time zones other than rest time. 10th and 11th-grade students are allowed to rest for two weeks between the skill test and the exam date. These 9th and 10th-grade classes of schools begin training in two weeks after the end of the year-end skill examination with another secondary school. The theoretical training of the Vocational Education Center students is planned to be at least a maximum of two days per week. The course year is 36 weeks. The duration of the theoretical training may vary according to the nature of the program applied within the context of projects and protocols implemented by the Ministry. In the case of conditions, the education of the ninth grade courses may be given at the VET centers or the educational units of the enterprises. As long as these students continue their contracts which are operated according to the provisions of the Vocational Education Law no. 3308, vocational training continues to operate during the academic year except for paid and unpaid leave periods.
Organization of the Day and Week
Education is provided five days a week. Exceptions are possible as long as specified in the curriculum. The number of compulsory teaching hours is predetermined. The maximum course load is 46 hours per week. One hour lesson is 40 minutes for all classes. All-day there is lunch in educational institutions. Breaks between courses should not be less than 10 minutes, and the rest period cannot be less than 45 minutes during lunch break. When necessary, according to the nature and needs of the school course lessons can be combined. Course hours in a study done internships in vocational training schools and business conducted in the company are 60 minutes. It is essential that courses be performed during the day and vocational education in business. Nonetheless, according to the article 73 of 4857 numbered of Vocation Law, education can be given in line with the other sectors outside of the industry, sectors, and types of programs characterized by considering enterprises running in climate conditions and in a certain time during the provincial hours with employment and training committee. On the other hand, during the academic year in Anatolian religious high schools; imam, preacher, preacher, muezzin, the Koran course instructor, and other professional practical training are carried out in cooperation with the Presidency of Religious Affairs.