Educational Guidance and Support in Turkish educational system is provided by the Ministry of National Education at all levels of education including early childhood education, primary and secondary education. As for the higher education, the Council of Higher Education regulates the provisions regarding educational guidance and support at tertiary level.
Special Education refers to the educational provisions, educated personnel with the necessary competences, developed curricula and syllabi for this group of individuals as well as the pedagogic methodology and aims at equipping those group of people with the academic competences in the appropriate educational contexts.
The principles and procedures for providing compulsory education for individuals with special educational needs are structured to include secondary education in order to benefit from the general and vocational education for the rights of individuals who need special education. These principles and procedures are organized by the Regulation of Special Education Services, the Ministry of National Education. In addition, mainstreaming education services for students who continue their education along with their registered students with special educational needs/regulatory provisions that will be conducted on applicable in the institution are applied together.
Educational assessment and diagnosis of individuals are performed by the Counseling Research Centers (CRC) to identify the individuals with special needs as well as what provisions they require at every cycle of educational provisions. In addition, the Ministry may open schools and institutions for those individuals. Within this regard, individuals with hearing and visual impairment orthopedically handicapped and gifted individuals are provided educational provisions at institutional level. For those who are at school age and yet cannot participate in formal educational institutions due to the health problems are offered education at home and hospitals.
Based on the numbered 5580 Law on Special Education Institutions, a support educational provision is offered in special education and rehabilitation centers as well as at special education schools in line with the educational descriptions of the handicapped or the nature of the special education. Within this framework, educational expenses of the individuals with special needs are compensated by the Ministry of National Education, as is depicted in the 43rd Article of the 652nd Law. Precautions are taken for the individuals with special needs to secure the principle of possessing education in least limited educational contexts where peers with normal developmental progress receive education, or in special education classrooms, or in day and/or night dormitory schools.
Counseling and guidance services in line with the areas of development:
a) Academic development area; The individual adapts to the school and the school environment, adopts the school and classroom rules, develops a sense of belonging to the school, shows continuity, determination and effort in his academic studies, takes responsibility, values his studies and develops an appropriate academic understanding and sense of responsibility for lifelong learning, academic It is a field of development that includes gaining the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for development and success.
b) Career development area; recognizing the interests, abilities, values and personality traits of the individual, realizing the occupational options, establishing a connection between the qualifications required by the professions and personal characteristics, developing a positive attitude towards the professions, gaining career awareness, the relationship between work life and education, and the importance of lifelong learning in terms of career development. It is the area of development that includes realizing it.
c) The area of social emotional development; In order for the individual to know himself, to accept and develop himself with his existing aspects, to realize, regulate and manage his emotions, to understand and accept others, to acquire the necessary knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, to develop healthy interpersonal relations, to make decisions, to set goals and to achieve his goals. It is a development area that includes making efforts, ensuring personal safety, gaining sensitivity towards family and social values and nature. Guidance services are divided into two as individual and group, according to the number of individuals benefiting from the service.
Individual guidance; It includes one-to-one guidance services for the individual's academic, career and social emotional development. group guidance; It includes group guidance services for the educational, professional and personal/social development of individuals.
Guidance and psychological counseling services according to education levels:
a) Guidance and psychological counseling services in the pre-school period; It is carried out in order for the child to know himself, to socialize, to develop self-confidence, to discover his limits, to adapt to the school, to develop a positive attitude towards school and learning, and to gain awareness about his abilities and interests.
b) Guidance and psychological counseling services at primary school level; It is carried out in order for the student to adapt to the school, to develop a positive attitude towards the educational environment and learning, to acquire cognitive skills for learning to learn and to transfer what he has learned, to know himself, to develop self-confidence, to recognize and express emotions, to make friends, and to gain skills such as problem solving.
c) Guidance and psychological counseling services at secondary school level; The student gains life skills such as establishing and developing friendships, making decisions, taking responsibility and conflict resolution, adapting to the changes in adolescence, developing study skills in line with learning methods suitable for himself, realizing his interests, talents and personality traits and strengths and weaknesses, and career goals It is carried out with the aim of orienting towards higher education institutions.
ç) Guidance and psychological counseling services at secondary education level; It is carried out in order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the student to form a healthy identity, to adapt to the changes in adolescence, to realize his values and to establish a link between his own values and social values, to acquire the habit of working in an efficient, systematic and planned manner, and to turn to higher education, profession and business areas in line with his career goals. .
d) Guidance and psychological counseling services in lifelong learning institutions; It is carried out by taking into account the characteristics of the developmental period, needs, expectations, environmental conditions, socioeconomic and cultural characteristics in order for the individual to receive pre-vocational education, prepare for business life, acquire a new profession, and realize the importance of transferable skills in business and professional life.
The aim of the Guidance and Psychological Counseling program carried out at the undergraduate level in higher education institutions is to have theoretical knowledge of the field; have the knowledge, skills and attitudes to offer a wide range of field-specific services; Sensitive to human well-being, able to conceptualize human life as a developmental process; Respect, curiosity and understanding of individual and social differences; able to integrate professional development and individual development; is to train professional staff who have the flexibility to work with various segments of society. Most of the graduates of the program work as guidance teachers/psychological counselors in the guidance and research centers affiliated to the Ministry of National Education and in primary and secondary education institutions He also works in private psychological counseling centers, Turkish armed forces psychological counseling and guidance centers, family and juvenile courts, university psychological counseling centers, health and industrial institutions. In summary, the graduates of the Guidance and Psychological Counseling Undergraduate Program, with the title of Guidance Teacher/Psychological Counselor or the title of the staff that will be given by the employing institution (For example; Psychological Counselor, Pedagogue, Human Resources Specialist, Education Specialist, etc.) in sectors such as education, justice, health and industry. they can work.
At tertiary level, the guidance and support are carried out by two major sources. First, every student enrolled to a tertiary program is provided with a consultant, who is an academician in the same program. The major objective of the consultant faculty member is to lead the student throughout the program and help make effective academic choices. For the psychological support, university units such as hospitals or the small health units of the universities employ psychologists for providing guidance and support for the students.
During the educational assessment and diagnosis of individuals, characteristics of all developmental areas and academic competences of the individuals are evaluated for the educational purposes. In light of those data, educational needs of the individuals are identified, and then decided on the need of a special education. Educational assessment and diagnosis of individuals is performed in the Counselling and Research Centers in an objective way with the standardized tests. Individual’s medical assessment report, as well as mental, physical, psychological, social developmental history, characteristics in all the development fields, competency in the academic fields, educational performance, needs, time for benefiting from the education services and individual development report prepared by the teacher of the school where the child is registered are taken into consideration in diagnosing process. Evaluation and evaluation of educational guidance is repeated as necessary at the request of the parent or school/institution taking into account the educational performance and educational needs of the individuals and the transitions of all types and stages of education.
It is determined that the children at the age of 37-66 months with special education needs carry primarily on their education with their peers without any disabilities within the content of mainstreaming in the preschool education institutions in the same class or in special education classes. However, special education kindergartens could be opened under schools and institutions for the children at the age of 37-66 months old that cannot carry on their education through mainstreaming education, and for the children at the age of 48-66 months old. In addition, special education early childhood educational units could be opened by the directorates of national education in line with the proposal of the board of special education services in order to give a service for the children with a need for special education between these months under special education kindergarten and special education centres (schools) for the purpose of offering an early childhood education for the children at the age of 0 -36 months needing a special education.
Individuals in need of special education may continue their primary and secondary school education primarily in primary and secondary schools for individuals with special education needs as well as those who can coexist with their peers at general or vocational and technical secondary education institutions through integration/integration practices.
Individuals who are in need of special education whose decision is directed to general or vocational and technical secondary education institutions that do not receive students with the central system common exams are placed in the boarding schools of the residential schools without quotas in the framework of the business association to be made with the related units.
For the students who want to study in the residence, the possibilities of the nearby boarding schools are evaluated according to the residence address and enough quotas provided through the decision of the general or vocational and technical secondary education institutions.
Individuals who are unable to achieve the objectives of the general education programs at the primary and secondary levels continue their education at special education schools/ institutions where the education programs are implemented in line with the performance levels of the developmental areas.
Students who have completed secondary school are directed to general, vocational and technical secondary schools to and students who have completed the special education schools/institutions implementing the special education program are directed to schools that meet their characteristics.
Individuals who cannot complete their primary education institutions for various reasons and who fall outside the compulsory primary school age can continue their education in the Open Education Secondary School of the Ministry of National Education. Age registration is not required for those who are certified with a document to be obtained from the Special Education Services Board that requires special education (21.7.2012 / 28360 R.G., Regulation of special education services).
Special Education Services at Adult Education; an education service is given to the individuals with a need for special education through the programs arranged in different issues and periods in special education institutions and other departments.
Non-formal education services; they are carried out to improve the basic life skills of individuals, to meet their learning needs, to prepare programs aiming at preparing them for profession and to practice them. They are prepared in a way to comprise knowledge and skills for the purpose of making family actively involve in the education of individual and making individuals attain basic life skills. In line with the improvement features of individuals and their competence, it is planned by taking the demands of market of work into consideration with the opportunities of the environment they are in. Non-formal education services are planned and implemented in cooperation with provincial vocational education board and official and private institutions and organizations.
Each individual is in a direct or indirect relationship with the world of education and work. So everybody needs support and guidance about education. TQF leads a link between education and world of work. The TQF includes all qualifications awarded as a result of recognition of the individual's learning outcomes by a responsible body, regardless of the learning context. These qualifications include the diplomas awarded by the Ministry of National Education, Journeyman’s and Mastership Certificates, the Course Completion Certificates; diplomas and certificates awarded by higher education institutions, VQA Vocational Qualification Certificates awarded by the Vocational Qualifications Authority, and certificates and documents issued by authorized institutions in accordance with the international agreements and the national legislation.
Inclusion of a qualification into the TQF approves that;
• It is described by the learning outcomes approach,
• It meets the quality assurance criteria,
• The process of access to the qualification is reliable and transparent
• The relationship with other qualifications is clearly explained,
• It is recognized by trainers and employers,
• It has a clear reference to the European Qualifications Framework.
The qualifications awarded in Turkey and general information about them will be accessed through the Qualifications Database of Turkey.
The Database has been developed as an online platform including general information both in Turkish and English about qualifications within the scope of the TQF provided by different responsible bodies such as the Ministry of National Education, higher education institutions and Vocational Qualifications Authority.
The title and the description of the qualification in learning outcomes, awarding body, TQF and EQF levels, ISCED and ISCO codes, validity date, entry requirements, ways to acquire and relevant web links are available in the Database.
The Database will also be linked to the Qualification Pillar of ESCO developed and managed by the European Commission. Therefore the citizens of other countries, as well as the national public, will be able to easily access the information about the qualifications offered in Turkey and consequently the learning opportunities.
Besides, the institutions of other countries where our citizens seek for education or employment will easily access the information transparently presented in English about the qualifications in Turkey, and thereby the comprehensibility and reliability of the qualifications will increase.
The Turkish Qualifications Database which will be regularly updated can be accessed at http://portal.tyc.gov.tr/
Within the scope of mainstreaming, individuals who need special education are provided with the opportunity to benefit from the non-formal education programs within the framework of the cooperation with other official and private institutions and organizations. Individuals participating in non-formal education programs opened in private education schools and institutions are covered by the Ministry during their education and training. In addition, relatives or relatives at the first level who participate in family education programs for individuals who need special education also benefit from the same remuneration. In non-formal education institutions, special education classes can be created for individuals who need special education (Regulation on Special Education Services, Article 33).
Special education services in higher education; RAMs are guided to higher education by the executive committee of guidance and counseling services or guidance and psychological counseling service for individuals who need special education to complete secondary education. Higher education entrance examinations and evaluations of these individuals in the type of disability and to make arrangements in accordance with the characteristics of the relevant institutions and organizations in the business association is made (Article 32 of Special Education Services Regulation).
The services of special education and guidance are carried out by General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services, one of 19 service units of the Ministry according to the decree law with a no of 652 concerning the organization and duties of the Ministry of Education. The Studies are carried out by the Constitution, 5378 No. disabilities, the Regulation of Special Education Services, Regulation of preschool and primary institutions, Regulation of secondary education institutions, and Guidance Advisory services are based on the relevant Regulation.
Education through mainstreaming; these are special education applications based on the principle that individuals with special education needs could carry on their education with their peers having normal development by providing them supportive educational services in official or private preschool, primary and secondary and widespread education institutions.
Individuals with special educational needs in the mainstream can continue as part-time through education, such as in special education classes to pursue full-time in the same class with their peers with normal development. Students enrolled in special education classes can coexist with other peers in accordance with the planning of mainstreaming within the scope of part-time individualized education program development units, some lessons and social activities.