Definition of the Traget Group(s)
Apprenticeship education has been framed within the compulsory education with the 6764th Law and associated with the MoNE General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education. The amendments realized in 6764th. This Law was also reflected to the Regulation of Secondary Education on 26.03.2017 and 16.09.2017. The requirement is to complete the lower secondary education to enroll lower secondary education schools and to be younger than 18 before enrollment date. The age requirement is a must and applicants over 18 are not accepted to the upper secondary education. Married students are not accepted to the schools, and those who got married during their education are transferred to open secondary schools via e-School. However, this regulation does not apply to the students of Vocational Education Centers. In Vocational Education Centers, the common courses are: Turkish Language and Literature, Mathematics, Theology and Ethics and Vocational Development Courses. In those centers, 27 different fields and educational programs in 141 fields were updated and put into effect in 2016-2017 educational year.
Students in Vocational Education Centers are offered a skills examination for each of the course they took at the end of the year by 10th grade. At the end of the 11th grade, students take a “foremanship examination”, which is followed by a mastership examination at the end of the 12th grade. Those examinations are held under the auspices of the board of province employment and vocational education. Extra commissions can be established in case the number of the examinees are high and the fields to be tested varies significantly, decision of which is taken in the teachers’ meeting (Article 47-7). Responsibility examinations are also offered to students who failed in the skills examinations in either written or application format. Those who failed in foremanship examinations are offered the same examination once more (Article 58-3). According to the Regulation of Secondary Education revised in 2017 (70/A), those who succeed in the foremanship examination with no fail-courses are certified with a Foremanship Document at the end of 11th year, and those who succeed in the courses and examinations of the mastership are provided with a Mastership Documents. In addition, the mastership diploma holders who further receive a course on work pedagogy are provided with a mastership trainer/work pedagogy document. 69th Article of the same regulation states that those who hold the mastership document can also be provided with a secondary school diploma upon their request. It is mandatory to complete the secondary education courses for those who complete the mastership education so that they can receive the secondary school diploma.
Graduates of vocational and technical secondary schools are provided with a Europass Certificate Supplement about their field of expertise/subject. Europass Certificate Supplement was approved by the Board of Education and put into effect. Europass Certificates have been assigned by the Ministry since 2013-2014 educational year. The details are provided in the official website of National Reference Point.(http://urn.meb.gov.tr/)
New documents have been utilized since 10.10.2017 for the documents of Foremanship, Mastership and Master Trainers, based on the legislative frame depicted by the 6764thLaw and The Regulation of Secondary Schools.
The guideline of “MoNE Recognition of Previous Learning, Equivalency, Assessment and Evaluation” was published in the MoNE Proceedings Journal numbered 2721, which frames the recognition of previous learning. The assessment and evaluation criteria for the foremanship and mastership skills, stationary equipment to be utilized and matching of the fields/subjects were completed in a series of studies. The first of the examinations were done in February 2018. With the suggestions collected from the governors’ offices, revisions will be made on the Guideline, Examination Rules and Criteria for Skills Examination. Exemption tables were prepared for mastership documents within the Law No. 3308 on Vocational Education and the diplomas assigned by the technical and vocational schools of the MoNE as well as the compulsory Vocational Competences Document for 81 different national vocational standards for occupations.
Lifelong Learning Strategic Document of the MoNE for 2014-2018 puts a strong emphasis on the recognition of previous learning and offers the use of the strategy pervasively. The Lifelong Learning Institutions Regulation, prepared in line with the strategy document, addresses literacy skills and their assessment and evaluation in the 73rdArticle, as follows:
- General rules for the examinations are no applied to those who are to receive 1stLevel Adult Literacy Diagnostic Test and Adult Literacy 2ndLevel Diagnostic Test as well as Adults 2ndEducational Success Document.
- A written/oral/application examination is done by a commission of three personnel, one classroom teacher and with the leadership of the institution principal/head, based on the application of the individuals. A commission member is assigned to support individuals with special needs. Necessary precautions are to be taken in line with the nature of the special need. To be successful in the examination, “pass” grade should be taken from each lesson.
- A “Literacy Diploma” is given to those who complete the Adults 1stLevel Literacy Education or Adult 1stLevel Literacy Test.
- A “2ndLevel Literacy Diploma” is given to those who complete the Adults 2ndLevel Literacy Education or Adult 2ndLevel Literacy Test.
- In assessment of literacy competencies, there is no requirement for number of the candidates or deadline for application. Teachers, excluding those in the commission or administrators, are paid a fee described in the regulation.
74thArticle of this regulation addresses the recognition of the previous learning, as follows:
- Within a lifelong learning approach, formal, informal and mass educational credentials of the individuals that relate to certain knowledge, skills, competencies are recognized via standardized tests and certified accordingly.
- The recognition of the previous learning is documented by the Ministry of National Education.
Within this frame, trainees who complete the courses in mass education institutions, such as Public Education Centers can take the examinations of foremanship and mastership, which are framed within 63rd/a Article of the regulation of “Recognition of Previous Learning and Equivalency”, numbered 1557502 and published on 02.10.2017 as well as the 35thArticle of the MoNE Regulation of Secondary Education.
Adult education (mass education) in Turkey are provided for those who are not placed in any cycle of the formal education or have left the formal education. These provisions are framed in line with the rationale of lifelong learning and aims at contributing to the individual growth, societal and employment foci in order to improve the knowledge, skills and competencies of the concerning individuals, which is stated in theRegulation of Lifelong Learning Institutions.
Institutions working under the auspices of the General Directorate of Lifelong Learning within the frame of lifelong learning philosophy:
- Public Education Centers
- Maturation Institutions
- Open Education Schools
In these schools/institutions, the following activities are held:
- Course and non-course activities,
- Certification, equivalency, duties relating to the recognition of previous learning,
- Research, development and archiving,
- Vocational educational activities in facilities,
- National and international introductory activities,
- Design, production and marketing activities,
- Educational activities about vocational and technical content to educate skilled workforce,
- Organizing and holding contests, fairs, exhibitions, symposiums, panels, projects, cooperation documents, artistic, social, cultural and similar activities.
- Open education services,
- Distance learning activities.
Public Education Centers (PECs) is the educational institutions which can provide services for provincial and district centers, sub-districts and villages in order to realize the aims and functions of non-formal education with the general aims of Turkish National Education.
PECs are the institutions offering courses to citizens of all ages, level of education, income, social status and cultural level of interest in line with their interests, talents and expectations. They provide free access to adults with vocational, social, social, economic, sportive and cultural courses. PECs offer education services to all citizens through literacy, general and vocational courses.
It provides the public with services such as knowledge, skills, behavior to guide the public's social, cultural and economic development through education simultaneously with the public reading rooms. Public education centers have been social and cultural courses and non-formal education institutions that organize vocational and general knowledge courses in order to provide these services to the public. The study disciplines were determined with the Regulation on Lifelong Learning Institutions published in 2018.
PECs carry out their activities in education rooms, especially in provinces, districts and villages, in prisons and correctional facilities, in hospitals that require rehabilitation, in shanty areas, in public and private establishments, in buildings belonging to formal education institutions and in other places where they are needed. There is no limit to age and education to benefit from non-formal education services. However, due to the nature of the program to be implemented, age and education level can be sought.
Non-formal education programs are structured in three basic categories:
Literacy Courses; Law No 2841 on "Enactment of literate writers who are illiterate or who are out of compulsory primary education age or to make education at primary school level" has been issued to encourage citizens to learn to read or write or to study at primary school level. The purpose of this law is to ensure that all citizens who do not know how to read and write or who have little knowledge of compulsory primary education are able to read and write under the supervision of the state in accordance with the aims and basic principles of Turkish National Education or to study at primary school level. Encouragement measures are taken by local governments for those participating in literacy courses.
(Law on the Education of the Illiterate Citizens who are not in the Age of Compulsory Primary Education as an Literary Authority or Primary Education) Article 8). Reading and writing courses are free of charge, with 120 hours for the first course and 180 hours for the second school. Literacy certificates are given at the end of the course. General courses cover health, family life, mother and child education programs, civic education programs, self-development program in line with social and agricultural needs and needs.
Vocational courses cover vocational acquisition programs, basic skills development programs and technology use programs. Vocational training courses are developed and implemented by MoNE, and non-formal training programs for employees are developed and implemented by the relevant institutions (HEM, MEM) in the business sector in cooperation with the relevant sector. Vocational training programs are developed in modular structure and in accordance with national occupational standards and national competencies. A total of 2509 vocational course programs are available.
A total of 3,331 course programs, of which 639 were general, 2,692 were vocational and technical, were published under 70 fields.
In addition, courses are organized in order to make people with disabilities vocational and technical, social and cultural in the field knowledgeable and competent, to bring them to life, and to bring forth productive individuals. In the arrangement of the courses, a business association is established with the General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services, higher education institutions and related institutions and organizations. Special classes and groups can be established for the disabled and necessary precautions are taken so that normal individuals can benefit from the courses they attend. Regulation on Lifelong Learning Institutions Art. According to the provisions of 45, the number of trainees is not taken into account in the courses organized for those who need special education and even if necessary, a course is opened.
Open Education Schools
These schools work under the auspices of the General Directorate of Lifelong Learning and Directorate of Open Education, as follows:
- Open Education Lower Secondary School
- Open Education Upper Secondary School
- Open Vocational Upper Secondary School
- Open Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary School
- Open Imam Preacher Upper Secondary School
Open Education Lower Secondary School
Open Education Lower Secondary Schools are the institutions aiming at raising the education and culture level of the society by enabling adults who cannot complete their primary education and exceed the compulsory primary school age to complete their primary education and to create an environment for the development and strengthening of the society by using advanced communication tools and new technologies in line with the general purpose and basic principles of Turkish National Education.
Open Education Lower Secondary Schools which served under the General Directorate of Educational Technologies until November 2011 was affiliated to the Presidency of Open Education established within the body of the GDoLL on 11.11.2011. The Regulation on the Amendment of the Regulation on Open Primary Education School of the Ministry of National Education was changed on 21.07.2012 as Open Education Secondary School. The registration procedures and data entries of the open secondary education students were transferred to public education centers with the circular numbered 2012/45. With the Circular No. 56 issued on 20.09.2010, the registration procedures and data entries of the students of the Open Primary School started to be done through the address-based population system as in the formal education. Open education school operations are carried out according to the principles laid down in the Regulation on Open Education Secondary Education (Amendment: RG-21.07.2012-28360) published in the
With the transition to 4 + 4 + 4 education system with 6, 7 and 8 grade students are accepted for the 5th grade in Open Education Middle Schools.
With the amendment made in the Open Elementary School Regulation for the students who have passed the formal education age limit, the period of completion of the Open Primary School has been reduced from three years to one year since the 2009-2010 academic year.
The terms of enrollment in the Open Education Lower Secondary Schools are as follows:
- Formal 14-year-old's designated for educational institutions (however, those who need special education, prisoners, children's educational homes for those in and is not required age limit for students who want to enroll in overseas programs. Entry in the study abroad program built is required for those who want to switch to the Turkey program go way beyond the compulsory education age).
Primary school graduates and 4th grade graduates,
- Those who leave the 5th, 6th, 7th or 8th grades of primary or secondary schools,
- Those who have left secondary school or who have not graduated from secondary school,
- Those who have achieved II Adults II. Level Certificate,
- Those who have taken Basic Education-B Course Certificate,
- Those who study abroad and who have at least 4 grade of primary school at the level of those who have equivalency certificate.
The correct and good use of Turkish in all courses in the open secondary school is the main goal. The age limit is not required for those who document that they are detained, convicted and physically disabled, and that they require special education with the documents to be obtained from the board of special education services. The age limit is not required for the students who certify that they are present together with their mother, father or guardian who are assigned abroad for more than one year. The examinations are also carried out with the central system, and students with disabilities and other disadvantaged students are taken to the exam. Majority of the transactions such as admission, examinations, passing, graduation and communication are carried out over the internet.
Furthermore, with the help of foreign programs and UNICEF cooperation, open primary school learning centers for girls have been active since the 1999-2000 academic year.
Open Upper Secondary School
Open Upper Secondary School was established in 1992 under the Directorate of Film Radio and Television Education. Then, on 03.04.1998, it continued its education at the General Directorate of Educational Technologies, which was formed by combining the Directorate of Education for Film, Radio and Television with the General Directorate of Information Processing. 19 years after its establishment, open high school was connected to other Open Education Schools and open to the Open Education Schools Department established within the scope of the GDoLLL Law No. 652 dated 14.09.2011.
Open Upper Secondary Schools aims providing those who complete primary education but who do not attend secondary education and graduate from higher education with such education opportunities as to have the opportunity to study in different fields, and to prepare for higher education.
In the case of students' request and physical space in the open education high school, where formal general secondary education programs are applied, some face-to-face courses are offered. There is no age limit for the students who want to study at this school and they do not have any education.
In the Open Upper Secondary Schools, which provides instruction and credit system, many services from student records to course programs and course materials are provided to students by using advanced mass media and new technologies.
Graduation and confirmation of diplomas of students who graduate from open schools with the protocol signed with the Chamber of Notaries can be performed Turkey through Notaries Information Service and System Information Management System within the Open School by using web services. In addition, students can access a lot of information directly with e-Government applications.
In Open Upper Secondary Schools, examinations are conducted by a centralized system. In addition, students are enrolled in 32 centers in 18 countries for enrollment from abroad.
Open Upper Secondary Schools, which operate in accordance with the procedures and principles of the Official Gazette dated 14.12.2005 and numbered 26023 which was published in the Journal of Declarations 2006/2580 (amendment RG July 2011/2646) is a unique and centralized model different from other formal education institutions in terms of its structure and functioning. The website of the school can be accessed at http://aol.meb.gov.tr.
Open Vocational Upper Secondary Schools
Open Vocational Upper Secondary Schools was established under the General Directorate of Educational Technologies with the approval of the Ministry Office on 02.02.2006 and numbered 1461. However, from 1995 to 2006 the school taught at the level of vocational secondary education in open secondary education.
The need for more effective implementation of vocational secondary education programs within open education high schools, face to face training, internship studies and efforts to integrate scientific and technological developments into the work force the establishment of vocational open education high schools. The establishment provisions of the school were put on the legal basis with the publication of the Regulation on Vocational Open High School published in the Official Gazette dated 24.12.2005 and numbered 26033.
Open Vocational Upper Secondary Schools were transferred to General Directorate of Lifelong Learning, established with Decree Law No. 652 dated 14.09.2011, together with other open education schools and continues its education services here.
The purpose of this schools is to provide those who have completed their primary education, but who cannot continue their secondary education, and who have graduated from secondary education, who have graduated from higher education with the opportunity to study in different fields. It considers preparing the students for life and higher education, raising the culture level of the society and ensuring the equalization of opportunity and opportunity at the secondary level.
Open Vocational Upper Secondary Schools are similar to vocational high schools in formal education in terms of program content and they have the same characteristics as the program contents. They have more specific characteristics than other formal education institutions in terms of structure and functioning.
Teaching is carried out according to the course and credit system. In 2006, with the extension of all schools to 4 years, the Vocational Open High School was also extended to 4 years and the related regulation was made in its By-Law. Joint and elective courses taught in vocational open education high schools were determined in parallel with the formal education by the Board of Education. Courses are offered to students with distance education technologies, while vocational courses are offered in face-to-face formal education schools.
The web site of the school can be accessed at http://maol.meb.gov.tr. Every student who has completed his / her primary education is given the right to benefit from the secondary education opportunities for his / her interests, wishes and abilities in Vocational Open High Schools in accordance with Articles 26 and 27 of National Education Basic Law No. 1739.
No age limit is found in student enrollments and the duration of study is unlimited. Vocational secondary education programs are implemented with formal religion high school programs in vocational open education high school.
Measurement and evaluation is carried out with a centralized system. Students with disabilities and disadvantaged students are provided with an exam environment.
Open Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Schools
The history of the Open Vocational and Technical Upper Secondary Schools is based on the Letter School for Teaching, established on 01.07.1974, with the authority of the Authority numbered 420/14053. This school was later converted into the Vocational and Technical Open Education School with the decision of the Board of Education dated 08.09.1983 and numbered 155. Following the decision of the Board of Education, the Regulation on Vocational and Technical Open Education School was published in the Journal of Communiqués No: 2149 dated 10.10.1983.
These schools have been established in order to educate and prepare face-to-face training programs where necessary and to prepare them for life based on the aforementioned regulation, scientific and technological developments, face-to-face training and internship studies as a result of the feedback received from the practices up to date, the national objectives of the Basic Law of National Education and in accordance with the basic principles of this Law and Apprenticeship, and Mastery Law.
While these schools served under the supervision of the School of Education for Film and Television, the education and training service continued with the establishment of the General Directorate of Educational Technologies as a result of the merger of the Directorate of Film Radio and Television Education with the Directorate General of Information Processing. Nowadays, vocational and technical open education school continues its education in the scope of the General Directorate of Lifelong Learning, which was established by Decree Law No. 652 dated 14.09.2011.
The school web page can be accessed at http://mtao.meb.gov.tr. In vocational and technical open education school, it is necessary to open vocational courses and certificate programs with distance learning techniques to the citizens who want to get a profession or to progress in their profession.
Open Imam Preacher Upper Secondary Schools
Within the scope of vocational secondary education program, open education secondary schools were taught as religion school programs from 1995 to 2006. It continued to provide education in Vocational Open High School from the date of 02.02.2006 to 22.03.2017, after the establishment of vocational open education upper secondary school.
Open Imam Preacher Upper Secondary Schools was established on 22.03.2017 after the approval of the Ministry office on 08.08.2016 and numbered 8442612 and established as an independent school within the scope of General Directorate of Lifelong Learning.
This type of schools is the same as the program contents of Anatolian religion upper secondary schools in formal education. According to the principles set forth in the Regulation on Open Vocational Upper Secondary School, courses and credit system are applied in the school where work and transactions are carried out.
The school web page can be accessed at http://aoihl.meb.gov.tr/. Common and elective courses taught in the open education religion upper secondary school are determined in accordance with the formal education by the Board of Education. Lessons learned through distance education are supported on the Internet via the MEB Education Informatics Network (EBA), through lecture videos, PDF textbooks and course materials and other digital materials. Occupational (field) courses are organized in the form of face-to-face education at the end of the course or at the end of the week the schools as two semesters.
Specific Support Measures
There are not direct financial aids for those enjoying non-formal education, other than those in scope of apprenticeship education; however, there are indirect support and incentive mechanisms. There are no support mechanisms such as non-reimbursable or reimbursable aids. However, in the workplaces in the scope of Vocational education law, in the limits mentioned in the law and according to the base and criteria determined the Ministry of National Education, real and juridical person who provide skills training to the apprentices and vocational high school students are repaid 50% of the amount of the corporate and income taxes they paid as incentive bonus for the development of vocational education. Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı-MEB) takes over the expenses (food and accommodation) of the individuals attending to the non-formal education courses in special education institutions.
State Support for Private Vocational Upper Secondary Schools:
A state support has been allocated for 21 private vocational upper secondary schools established in Industrial Areas since the educational year 2017-2018, a fee between 4.270 TL and 6.900 TL. In addition, for other private vocational upper secondary schools established off-the Industrial Areas, a state support for 27 fields has initiated lately. In the current application, 70 vocational and technical upper secondary schools and 39.283 are benefiting from this financial support.
State Support for the Institutions of Skills Education and Practicum
Within the scope of state contribution provided to enterprises for skills training and internship, the students are provided with the necessary skills training and internships in a real work environment. In addition, 2/3 of the amount corresponding to at least 30% of the minimum wage paid to the students by the enterprises obliged to undertake skill training and internship is paid as state contribution to employers. Thus, more enterprises are provided with the possibility of providing skills training and internship to more students and the payments are updated based on the minimum wage. From February 2017 until April 2018, a total of 442,036,584 TL state incentives were paid to the enterprises for 2.381.450 students.
Other supports are as follows: Social Security expenditures (insurance for work accidents and vocational diseases) are paid, pass (discounted transportation) is provided, some students can be provided with free lodging (boarding education), and lunch is free (The Legislation for Unpaid Boarded Students in Apprenticeship Training Centers and Social Aid to be Provided for Them as well as Administration of Accomodation Facilities/Çıraklık Eğitimi Merkezlerinde Parasız Yatılı Çırak Öğrenci Okutma ve Bunlara Yapılacak Sosyal Yardımlar İle Pansiyonların Yönetimi Yönetmeliği, Articles 5, 7, 26, 28, 34).
The health insurance and premium transactions of the students are carried out according to the Social Insurance and General Health Insurance Law dated 31/5/2006 and numbered 5510 and the related regulations. (B) the work accident and occupational disease and sickness insurance for the students who pursue foremen and mastership education and the vocational education for the enterprises is applied to the students who are trained in vocational and technical secondary education institutions and who are receiving complementary education or field education in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 5 of Law No. 5510; the occupational and occupational health insurance (BOK Article 222).
Social security contributions for the students in Open Vocational Education without social security are paid by the Ministry from the commencement of skill education in enterprises to the end of education (Regulation on Open Vocational High School/Meslekî Açık Öğretim Lisesi Yönetmeliği, Article 33). Examination expenditures are only paid for the students without social security by the directorates of institutions, and health services of free boarding students are paid by the Ministry Students whose economic status is defined as insufficient are provided lunch to support (Vocational and Technical Education Regulation Mesleki ve Teknik Eğitim Yönetmeliği, Articles,172, 174). The following aids and facilities are provided to those attending literacy courses or courses at primary education level in order to encourage adult citizens to learn how to write and read or to have education in primary education level.
- Student identification card is issued during course.
- Studying in higher education institutions, children of the deprived people attending to the courses mentioned in this Law and becoming successful, have priority to be provided loan.
- Children of the mothers attending literacy courses or courses at the level of primary education have priority for admission in the nursery and kindergarten of the institutions and organizations where they are working.
- Literate people have priority in employing for a position over illiterate people.
- Those who are successful in literacy courses are given priority, for once, in allocation of seed and fertilizer through cooperative or bank credits.
- Those who are working in public institutions and organizations and private institutions and organizations as well as in any enterprises and who are attending literacy courses have holidays with pay for 60 hours for once, and those who are attending courses at primary school level have holidays with pay with 100 hours for once.
Incentive measures are taken by the private administrations or municipalities for those attending literacy courses. Courses are organized in order to make the disabled be informed and competent in vocational and technical and social and cultural fields, to enable participation of them into the life, and to make them productive individuals. Courses are organized in cooperation with General Directorate for Special Education Guidance and Counseling Services (Özel Eğitim Rehberlik ve Danışma Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü), higher education institutions and the relevant institutions and organizations. Special classes and groups can be created for the disabled while the necessary measures are also taken to maintain that the disabled can benefit from the same courses attended by the normal individuals (Regulation on Non-formal Education Institutions/Yaygın Eğitim Kurumları Yönetmeliği, Article 133).
Necessary precautions are taken by administrators and teachers related with the students/persons attending courses who are exposed to violence in and out of the family, may go towards illegal and immoral ways because of indifference or enforcement. In coordination with the custodian, parents or master trainers, necessary precautions are taken related with the students/persons attending courses not to be effected by addiction of all kind of inebriant matters and keeping, using, being an instrument to produce and smuggling of these matters, pornography, exhibitionism, sexual harassment, abuse and every kind of unfavourable behaviours, not to hurt physically and psychologically by other students/persons attending courses by means of gossip, violence, threat, teasing and dishonourable calls (Regulation on Reward and Discipline for Vocational Education Centres/Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Mesleki Eğitim Merkezleri Ödül ve Disiplin Yönetmeliği, Article 6).
Individuals with special education needs who completed the 23 years are directed to benefit from the social and cultural general or vocational and technical education courses at adult education centers. People pursue socio-cultural aspects of the development and courses for students to acquire vocational training centers are opened by the species barrier and training.
In adult education centers, sign language course is then opened for the teachers, students and for families.