Definition of the Target Group(s)
Individuals with a special education need are defined as individuals showing differences at a significant level compared to their peers in terms of their individual, developmental improvements and educational competencies.
- An individual with autism at serious level: The individual with a need for intensive special education and support program due to his/her limitations in social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communications, interests and activities.
- An individual with a mental handicap at serious level: The individual with a need for a life-long intensive special education and support program due to his/her disabilities in mental functions and contextual, social, practical adaptation and self-care skills
- Individual with a physical handicap: The individual with a need for a special education and support program due to the disorders in muscle, skeletal and neural system
- An individual with a handicap at very serious level: The individual with a need for a life-long care and watch who cannot attain self-care, daily life and basic academic skills because of the other disabilities as well as mental disabilities
- An individual with a visual handicap: The individual with a need for a special education and support program because of losing the visual power partly or completely
- An individual with autism at minor level: The individual with a need for a special education and support program because of limitations at minor level in social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communications, interests and activities
- An individual with a mental handicap at minor level: The individual with a need for a special education and support program due to his/her disability at minor level in mental functions and contextual, social, practical adaptation and self-care skills
- An individual with a hearing handicap: the individual with a need for a special education and support program because of losing the hearing sensitivity partly or completely
- An individual with autism at medium level: The individual with a need for a special education and support program because of limitations at medium level in social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communications, interests and activities
- An individual with a mental handicap at medium level: The individual with a need for a special education and support program due to his/her disability at medium level in mental functions and contextual, social, practical adaptation and self-care skills in attaining basic academic, daily life and occupational skills
- A gifted individual: It defines the individual learning faster compared to the peers, leading in the capacity regarding creativity, art and leadership, having a special academic talent, being able to understand abstract ideas, enjoying acting independently in the fields of interest and being able to have a high level performance.
Special education programs are applied for the purpose the objectives targeted in line with the developmental features, educational needs and performances depending on the program the individuals with a need for special education follow and comprising supportive educational services to be given to these individuals. This program is called Individualized Educational Program.
Specific Support Measures
Special Education and Guidance services are carried out according to the Decree No of 652 regarding the Organization and Tasks of the Ministry of Education by the General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services, one of 19 service units. The works are carried out with a basis on the Code No of 5378 regarding the Handicapped People, Code of Protecting Children, the Decree no of 573 Regarding Special Education, Regulation for Special Education Services, the Regulation for Preschool and Primary Education Institutions, the Regulation for Secondary education Institutions, the Regulation for Guidance Advisory Services.
In line with the general objectives and basic principles of Turkish National Education, Special education aims that individuals
- are trained as productive and happy citizens being able to fulfil their roles in a society, communication with others in a good way, work in cooperation, adapt to their environment easily,
- improve their basic life skills to spend an independent life and become self-sufficient people in the society,
- are prepared for an upper learning, occupational fields and life in line with educational needs, competencies, interests and talents using special method, staff and tools and materials through suitable education programs (Regulation for Special Education Services, Article 5).
It is a basic principle that individuals with a special need are guided to have a high quality special education service through educational processes prepared depending on the individual needs in the educational environments they are guided.
Depending on the result of the educational evaluation and diagnosing made in Guidance and Research Centres, individuals with a special education need have education at the same environment with their other peers through mainstreaming/integration applications in the first place based on the least limited educational environments. Besides that, students with a special education need also carry on their training in special education classes opened in the schools they have their education with their other peers. In addition, these individuals have their education in special education schools and institutions opened at any type and grades according to their educational needs and performances. An education service is given at home and hospital for those who cannot benefit from formal education institutions due to health problems among the individuals with a special education need at the age of compulsory learning.
Educational Applications through Mainstreaming/Integration: Special education is the applications based on the principle that individuals with a need for special education carry on their education in official and private preschool, primary, secondary and widespread education institutions with their peers having normal development by giving supportive education services (Regulation for Special Education Services, Article 23).
Individuals with a special education need could carry on their education both fulltime with their peers having normal development in the same class and as part time application in special education classes through mainstreaming. Students enrolled in special education classes could carry on some courses and social activities with their peers in line with the plans prepared by the unit of individualized educational program development within the content of part time mainstreaming application.
As is clear in all education through mainstreaming, the purpose in this education is to help to improve a great many positive behaviors that could be attained through the interaction of individuals without a disability and handicapped individuals with each other. The approach in the education through mainstreaming is to instil the individuals without disability awareness that there are disabled people in the community and the necessity to live together.
Students carrying on their education through mainstreaming follow the education program applied in the school where they are enrolled in the case of having their education in the same class with their peers without a disability and two different education programs depending on the type of the class in special education classes. Individualized Education Programs are prepared depending on the education performance and needs based on the programs the students follow.
It is organized that the individuals to be given education through mainstreaming at schools and institutions are distributed in a way that two individuals are in one class the most.
The arrangements are made by taking necessary measures in tools and materials, educational equipment, teaching methods and techniques and evaluation and assessment depending on the type of disability educational performance and need of the students attending their education through mainstreaming (Article 23).
Necessary physical, social and psychological arrangements of environment in line with the disability of the student are made in the schools and institutions where educational applications are carried out through mainstreaming (Article 24).
Supportive Education Room: A supportive education room is opened in schools and institutions for students with a special education need and gifted students attending to their education in the same class with their peers without ability (The Regulation for Special Education Services, Article 28). Taking the educational performances of the students in the supportive education room into account, one to one education is carried out. However, group education can also be conducted with the students at the same level in terms of educational performance when necessary. The supportive education services given in the supportive education room are carried out in the teaching hours of the school or the institution (Article 25).
Special Education Class: Special education classes could be opened by the directorates of national education in line with the proposal of the institution of special education services in formal and private schools and institutions at any kind and grade for the individuals with a special education need and whose cases are regarded suitable for the purpose of having an education with their peers without a disability. Two kinds of special education classes are formed in these schools and institutions depending on the education program to be followed. One of them is the special education applying the education program the school or institution they exist and the second one is the special education classes applying a different education program from that of the school or institution they exist.
Special Education Schools and Institutions: Depending on the fact that individuals with special education need could carry on their education with the individuals having no disability in the first place, formal and widespread special education schools and institutions could be opened at any kind and grade by the Ministry for these individuals (Regulation for Special Education Services, Article 37).
Pre-primary education institutions opened for individuals with special education needs; Pre-primary education is compulsory for children in need of special education between 37-66 months. It is essential that children continue their education in the same class or special education classes as their peers who are not inadequate within the scope of their education practices through integration/integration at primary education institutions. However, special education kindergartens for children between the ages of 37-66 months who cannot continue their education through integration/integration, and special education kindergartens within the schools and institutions can be opened for children between 48-66 months. In addition, in order to provide early childhood education services for children with special education needs between 0-36 months, special education kindergartens and special education centers (schools) are in charge of providing special education services to children who need special education between these months. Special can be opened education by early childhood education units.
Primary education institutions opened for individuals with special education needs;
The Ministry of National Education can open daytime and/or boarding primary schools and secondary schools for those individuals with hearing, sight, orthopaedic and mild intellectual disabilities who are in need of continuing their education in the primary education level primarily through the integration of their children with normal development peers in the context of their education.
Daytime primary and secondary schools for individuals with mild inadequacy at a mild level are opened in the Ministry of Education to provide access to education for these individuals.
In addition, day special education application centres are opened by the Ministry for individuals with a moderate and heavy mental disability and autism and who cannot follow the programs applied in primary education institutions in order that these individuals could carry on their education. Individuals with a moderate and heavy mental disability and autism carry on their education separately in the classes formed depending on the type of disability in these institutions. In special education application centres, the first 4 years (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades) are regarded as the 1st Stage education and the second 4 years (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades) are regarded as 2nd Stage education. With the Special Education Application Program that is run in these schools, it is aimed to have students develop their competencies that relate to independent living, communication, nutrition and health skills, in addition to the regular academic courses (07/07/2018, Regulation of Special Educaiton Services).
Secondary education institutions opened for individuals with special education needs; for the individuals with hearing, vision, orthopaedic and mild intellectual disabilities, it is essential for them to continue their primary education through integration/integration. Educational services are offered to these individuals by opening special education vocational schools for the individuals with hearing and orthopaedic inadequacy.
Secondary education institutions opened for individuals with special education needs; for the individuals with hearing, vision, orthopaedic and mild intellectual disability, it is essential for them to continue their primary education through integration. Educational services are provided for the individuals with hearing and orthopaedic inadequacy by establishing daytime and/or private education vocational schools.
The Ministry of National Education will open special daytime vocational training centers (schools), and these individuals are allowed to continue their four-year compulsory education at the secondary level in order to provide students with mild mental disabilities who are not able to attend primary, vocational and technical secondary education programs, mildly autistic students and students with visual impairments.
Vocational and technical secondary education programs are offered private day education centers (schools) by the Ministry of National Education for individuals with mental disabilities in moderate or severe mental disabilities and individuals who are unable to attend general. Students who complete special education program applied in special education application centers (in grades 9, 10, 11, 12) in education continue at the job application centers.
Institutions opened for the training of special talented individuals: Ministries daytime Science and Art Centers are opened in order to ensure that special talented students in preschool, elementary and secondary education are aware of their individual talents and develop and use their capacities at the highest level. These institutions are the foundation of individual education and training. Educational activities at the institution are planned and carried out to support programs in the formal educational institutions in which the students attend. Students are given the ability to think for the future, make predictions, and reflect on their work.
Hospital classes: Hospital classes are opened according to the protocol signed between the Ministry of National Education, the Ministry of Health and universities for preschool, primary, secondary and high school students who cannot attend to a formal education institution and having a special education need because of a health problem and having an inpatient treatment at health departments in order that they can carry on their compulsory education.
Home education services: Home education services are determined by the board of provincial special education services in towns and cities in line with the report by the evaluation board of special education for the individuals at the age of a preschool, primary, secondary and high school education with a special education need who cannot directly benefit from the formal education institutions four months at least because of a health problem and being able to submit a health report regarding his/her case. In the process of carrying out home education services, planning such issues as determining the teacher to be appointed for the education on the individual to be given home education and working hours, deciding on the weekly course numbers estimated for the individual, the measures to be taken for the arrangement of the education environment are made by the board of special education services.
Special Education Services in other Departments: Guidance and research centres recommend the least limited education environment by carrying out the services of educational evaluation, diagnosing, following up and guidance for the individuals with a special education need, and offers supportive education and guidance and psychology consultation for the individual and the family. Official and private preschool, primary and secondary education institutions and widespread education institutions are responsible for offering special education services for the individuals with a special education need. In these schools and institutions, necessary arrangements are made by taking special education measures in order to increase the efficacy of the training given to the individuals with a special education need. GRCs (Guidance and Research Centres) and special education schools for any kind of special education service to be offered to these individuals, cooperation is made with the directorates of national education.
Daytime special education vocational schools (07/07/2018-30471) were established by the Ministry in order to provide vocational and vocational knowledge and skills to students with mild intellectual disability who have completed their primary education and cannot continue their general, vocational and technical secondary education programs, and students with hearing and visual impairments. Special Education Services Regulation) is opened, enabling these individuals to continue their four-year compulsory education at secondary education level. In special education vocational schools, vocational education is given to students with special education needs in 18 vocational fields and 27 branches.
According to the educational evaluation and diagnosing for the handicapped within the content of the Law of Special Teaching Institution with a No 5580, Purpose and school units of educational services given in special education schools:
Individuals who are in need of special education for the special education school should be able to use their general and vocational education rights in the direction of their interests, desires, competences and abilities,
- To fulfil their roles within the society, establish good relationships with others, work in a union, adapt to their environment and grow as productive individuals,
- To improve self-care, independent life and functional academic skills, to become self-sufficient, and to adapt to collective attitudes, to improve self-care, mental, physical, auditory, visual, social, emotional with programs prepared with a student centred approach,
- To prepare for the learning, business and professional fields and life in line with their interests, needs, abilities and competences using appropriate training programs and special methods, personnel, tools and equipment.
The aim of the center is to prepare the life of the handicapped individuals in the direction of their needs, abilities and competencies by using special education methods, personnel, tools and equipment,
- To be able to grow up as productive individuals who fulfil their roles in society, establish good relations with others, work in a union and adapt to their environment,
- the elimination of disabled people with mental, physical, sensory, social, emotional and behavioral problems with language and speech difficulties or the elimination of disability at the lowest level and the maximization of competence and collective harmonization of the basic self-care skills and independent living skills (Ministry of National Education Regulation for Special Education Institutions Article 4-5)
In addition, according to the educational evaluation and diagnosing for the handicapped within the content of the Law of Special Teaching Institution with a No 5580, seven supportive education programs are applied to the handicapped in special education schools and special education and rehabilitation centers acting under the Ministry. A modular approach is adopted in educational support programs. These programs, developed for 7 different disadvantaged groups, are composed of sections: "Module, Chapter, Objective, Targeted Behavior and Definitions." These programs and their details are given in the table below (Designed in line with the decision of the Board of Education on 21.04.2021).
ESP for CHI*
ESP for AS*
ESP for ILD*
ESP for IVD*
ESP for IHD*
ESP for ILSD*
ESP for IPD*
Visual Perception and Memory 75h
Audio Perception and Memory 75h
Tactile Perception and Memory 40h
Motor Skills 60h
Visual Perception and Memory 250h
Audio Perception and Memory 200h
Tactile Perception and Memory 150 h
Motor Skills 150 h
Visual Perception and Memory 35h
Audio Perception and Memory 35 h
Tactile Perception and Memory 30 h
Motor Planning and Perception
Audio Perception and Memory 35h
Visual Perception and Memory 35h
Tactile Perception and Memory 35h
Early CognitiveSkills 35h
Getting ready to learn 35 h
Perception of Sound 50h
Differentiating Sound 50h
Audio Comprehension 50h
Fast – Distorted Talk 45h
Face to face 125h
Total 150 h
Language, Com. and Game
Pre-vocalic Communication Period 55h
Verbal Receptive Period 55h
Verbal Expressive Period 50h
Symbolic Games 30h
Social Games 30h
Language, Com. and Game
Pre-vocalic Com. Period 200h
Verbal Receptive Period 250h
Verbal Expressive Period 200h
Symbolic Game 150h
Social Game 150h
Alternative Communication 150h
Language and Com.
Style, Meaning and Use 30h
Functions of Communication 30h
Language and Com.
Silent Period 60h
Verbal Period 60h
Pre-vocalic Com. Period 100 h
Language and Com. 100h
Alternative communication 100h
Verbal Period 125h
With backup 150h
Without backup 150 h
*Acronyms for the titles - 2022
Educational support program for cognitively handicapped individuals: ESP for CHI
Educational support program for individuals with autism spectrum: ESP for AS
Educational support program for individuals with learning difficulties: ESP for ILD
Educational support program for individuals with vision difficulties: ESP for IVD
Educational support program for individuals with hearing difficulties: ESP for IHD
Educational support program for individuals with language and speech difficulties: ESP for ILSD
Educational support program for individuals with physical difficulties: ESP for IPD
Number of Rehab. Institutions
Num. of Students
Allocated Budget in TL
Number of Ins.
For an individual with disabilities receiving support from special education and rehabilitation centers:
8 hours for individual courses
4 hours for group courses
96 hours for individual courses
48 hours for group courses
were paid by the Ministry of Finance in 2018.
Within the content of physical access to schools, physical arrangements are held in schools and institutions depending on the Regulation for Following Accessibility and Supervision with a date of 20 July 2013 and a No of 28713 aiming at the students with special need.