All public higher education institutions get their resources from three different sources. State university on public financing is mainly mixed funding (public funding and tuition fees apply). Funds allocated from the national budget, student fees and self-generated revenues obtained through institutional enterprise (by means of revolving capital exploitation). As for foundation universities, they are financed mostly through student fees and foundation. Another important income is the profit made by universities’ own sources.
Foundation Higher Education Institutions are financed by tuition fees and the contribution of the founding foundation or university.
Another financial sources are revenues from their own working capital of universities. Universities’ building fees and financing issues are mostly covered through the budget allocated for the universities.
Financial Autonomy and Control
It is possible to mention little autonomy for universities. University budgets are under the supervision of the central authority during preliminary and implementation stages. Their budgets are ratified by the central government. As for foundation universities, they enjoy full academic autonomy. Their income is mostly due to students' education fees.
Fees within Public Education
1st cycle university students enrolled in a morning education do not pay fees. Public universities are financed by the Government and have an additional income from the students' fees (not more than of their income). However, students who are enrolled in an evening education are required to pay student fees.
Financial Support for Learners' Families
There are no specific provisions for support of learners' families from the general population. However, there are certain tax discounts for parents and families.
Financial Support for Learners
There are different kinds of support given by various institutions including the government itself. The education of higher education students studying both in the country and abroad is supported with scholarships and student loans and also they are offered accommodation and food. The successful and needy students having higher education as a citizen of Turkish Republic are given non-refundable grant during their normal education period with the Decree No of 5102 Regarding Granting Scholarship/Loan to Higher Education Students. In addition, other public institutions could grant scholarships, loans and cash for higher education students by means of this institution. In order to support Turkish citizens attending to a higher education, and facilitate their social and cultural developments, they are granted refundable loans during their normal education of higher education institutions they attend with no obligation of service. Students have to refund the loans they are granted starting in the month two years after they complete their normal education in the period they are granted loan and in monthly instalments.
In addition, within the frame of the 1416 Law, The Ministry of National Education sends students abroad to be trained are financially supported on condition that they do obligatory service in the public institutions when they turn back homeland.
Within this frame, students can possibly benefit from grants and educational loans. Grants and loans are provided for the students based on specific academic criteria. Also certain institutions, private and civic organizations offer scholarships and grants for the tertiary level students.
They are not funded by the state budget and have autonomy to spend their own budget according to their own policy. Higher Education Council in Turkey allows foundation higher education institutions to enjoy academic autonomy. There are no private universities, but foundation ones.