12.4. GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN EARLY CHILDHOOD AND SCHOOL EDUCATION
•1 Academic guidance
The academic guidance is not regulated in the ECEC sector.
In the school education the academic guidance is part of the professional competences of the professional support staff (psychologists, pedagogues, sociologists, special educators etc.) and are regulated by a Bylaw (Guidelines for professional competences of the professional support staff in primary and secondary schools). According to the Bylaw the pedagogues are mostly there to help the pupils with the development of learning skills as well as skills for appraisal of achievement and motivation to achieve. In addition, according to the Law for Primary Education (Article 122) and Law for Secondary Education (Article 96) the Teachers’ Council monitors the achievement of pupils and proposes measures for remedial activities where necessary. The individual inclusion team (as explained in part 12.3.2.) follows the progress of pupils with special needs. There is also a Bylaw for pupil appraisal for pupils with special needs.
The instigation of higher achievement is also done through extra-curricular activities that are prescribed by the Law for Primary Education (Article 41). There is also a Concept for Extra-curricular activities in primary schools (BDE, 2021) developed to further regulate such activities in primary schools.
•2 Psychological counselling
The psychological counselling and help is prescribed as a possibility in the ECEC sector within the Law for Child Protection (Article 169). The counselling is done within the realms of counselling body that has a multidisciplinary/inclusive team.
Within the school education sector the psychological counselling is part of the work of the School Psychologist (Guidelines for professional competences of the professional support staff in primary and secondary schools). According to the Bylaw the psychologists should use methods and techniques to improve the socio-emotional functioning of the children and improve their mental health. In addition in both the Law for Primary Education (Article 76) and the Law for Secondary Education (Article 58a) there is counselling of parents whose children show problematic behavior or have low achievement.
•3 Career guidance
There are no provisions for career guidance in the ECEC sector.
In the school sector the professional orientation of pupils is part of the work of the school psychologists and the special educator (Guidelines for professional competences of the professional support staff in primary and secondary schools). In primary education the professional orientation of pupils is regulated by Law (Article 57) that stipulates helping pupils, parents/guardians help in choosing the secondary school in line with the abilities, characteristics and interests of the pupils. In addition in 2020 a Program for professional orientation of pupils in grade 8 and 9 of primary school has been passed that further regulates the goals, topics, phases and activities undertaken to help the professional orientation of the pupils. The law for secondary education does not regulate the professional orientation and career guidance of pupils. However the professional orientation, career guidance and enabling school to work transition are regulated by the Law for Vocational Education and Training, for those pupils in Vocational Education. There are a number of bylaws that regulate practical teaching within schools as well as practical teaching and internships in companies (summer internships).