Skip to main content
European Commission logo


EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Political, social and economic background and trends

Republic of North Macedonia

1.Political, social and economic background and trends

Last update: 27 November 2023

This chapter discusses political, social and economic background and trends of North Macedonia. In section 1.1. it provides a brief description of North Macedonia’s historical development. The next section includes an overview of the main legislative and executive bodies of the country. The chapter 1.3. provides information and data on Population including demography, languages and religion. At the end it provides data on political and economic situation of the country.

North Macedonia is a constitutional state; the most important foundation is the Constitution. On account of its extensive legislation, the country is also called a sovereign, independent, democratic and social state.[1]

North Macedonia is a social market economy. The vocational education and training system is partially developed and linked with the economy.

Education is mainly provided by public sector. The supreme body for primary and secondary education as well as for the Universities is the Ministry for education and science. Primary and secondary schools are mostly state-run. Primary education consists of nine years and is compulsory for all children. Secondary education is also compulsory and consists of four years. Studying in North Macedonia is mostly financed by government, according to the planned quota of students. Major reform in high-education occurred in academic year 2004/5 when Bologna Process was implemented. The primary goal of education policy and expected results, enshrined in the Education Strategy and Action plan 2018-2025[2], are:

  • A more inclusive and effective labour market;
  • Improved match between skills demand and supply;
  • A more modern social protection system;
  • Increased number of statistical indicators for policy makers;
  • Improved basic school (preschool and compulsory education) and higher education