Skip to main content
European Commission logo
EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Assessment in general upper secondary education


6.Secondary and post-secondary higher education

6.6Assessment in general upper secondary education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Pupil/students assessment

Student assessment is used for the continuous improvement of the management and day-to-day running of schools. It is an integral part of the instruction and learning process.

In order to conduct assessments, schools use a set of techniques and approaches:

  • Diagnostic assessment is carried out at the start of a school year in order to record prior student performance and inform lesson planning and instruction
  • Formative assessment is conducted during the learning process in order to determine if learning objectives specified by the current curriculum for each subject have been met.  The ultimate purpose is to support the instruction process and learning outcomes
  • Assessment of knowledge and skills needs to be reliable, comparable and consistent. This is achieved through summative assessment.

Distinction of taught subjects in general upper secondary education schools

According to law 4547/2018, attendance in day and evening lykeio is 3 years.  It includes grades A, B and C.  

Day and evening general lykeio grade Α subjects are divided into two (2) groups:

  • Group A includes general education subjects tested through written exams:
  1. Greek Language. Ancient greek language and Literature and Modern greek language and Literature)
  2. Mathematics (Algebra and Geometry)
  3. History
  4. Natural Sciences (Physics and Chemistry)
  5. English
  • Group B includes all other general education subjects and elective subjects not tested through written exams.

Day and evening general lykeio grade Β subjects are divided into two (2) groups:

  • Group A includes general education subjects tested through written exams:
  1. Greek Language. (Only the Modern greek language and Literature section)
  2. History
  3. Natural Sciences (Biology)
  4. Mathematics (Algebra and Geometry)
  5. English

In addition to the above subjects, group A also includes specialization group subjects.

  • Group B includes all other general education subjects and elective subjects not tested through written exams.

Day general lykeio grade C subjects are divided into two (2) groups:

  1. Group A includes the general education school subject of Modern Greek Language and Literature along with all the Specialization Groups school subjects. All these subjects are tested through the written school-leaving exams.
  2. Group B includes the rest o the general education and elective school subjects and they are tested through the written school-leaving exams.

Evening general grade C subjects are divided into groups:

1. Group A:

  • Modern greek language and Literature. 

  • Mathematics for the students attending  the  human studies specialization group. 

  • History just for the students attending the Natural sciences and Healthy studies specialization group as well as the Economics and Information technology specialization group respectively.

2. Group B includes all other general education subjects not tested through written exams.

Student assessment refers to the assessment of each subject separately. It is the exclusive responsibility of the instructor who teaches it.

Assessement procedure

Instruction time is performed in two teaching periods, called quarters.

The first quarter lasts from 11 September until 20 January.

The second quarter lasts from 21 January until the end of lessons. Lessons end the last 10 days of May.  For lykeio, the end of lessons is specified every year by decision of the Minister of Education published until the 30 April.

The assessment combines various forms and techniques. Within this framework, students are assessed on the basis of their performance during the quarters and the results of the final progression and graduation exams at the end of the school year (law 4610/2019).

Student assessment during quarters (oral performance)

For the assessment of the student every quarter, the following criteria are taken into account:

  1. Classroom participation
  2. Enthusiasm and interest for the subject concerned
  3. Performance in written classroom tests that those lasting either a few minutes or an hour. Tests lasting only a few minutes are conducted with or without prior notice in the form of short, various and suitable written questions. The number and frequency of these short tests held every quarter are at the teachers’ discretion. Written tests lasting one (1) hour are conducted : (a) with prior notice, when following a recapitulation or (b) without prior notice when covering the material taught in the previous lesson. No more than a one-hour written test per school day and no more than three (3) per school week should be conducted. In all General upper secondary school grades two (2) assessment tests are administered on all the Group subjects, one (1) during the first quarter and one (1) during the second quarter respectively, except for the subject of Physical Education where no assessment test is carried out. If for objective reasons no assessment test is carried out during the first quarter, then two (2) assessment tests will be held in the second quarter.
  4. Homework or school exercises
  5. Comparative/creative projects assigned for the subject concerned. They count towards positive student performance achieved during the respective quarter. The projects may be individual or collective and aim to nurture creativity and the spirit of research.

At the end of quarters A and B, the teachers submit students' marks to the school head.  The school head and the teachers are responsible for recording the oral marks on the individual progress report, without any delay.  As regards the second quarter, the recording takes place before the written progression and graduate exams.

At the end of each quarter and when grades have been finalized and recorded, guardians/parents are informed about student performance, diligence, attendance and behavior, and receive the individual progress report.

Written progression and school-leaving follow-up exams

In general lykeio, written progression and school-leaving classroom exams are conducted at the end of the programme taught during the 2nd quarter. They take place during May or the special exam period of June/September, in case the student is referred to them.  These exams assess the knowledge and skills attained by students during the relevant school year.

The programme for progression and graduate exams is determined by the school teachers' board.  The school head of lykeio announces it to students 5 days before the end of lessons.

The school head and the school teachers' board are responsible for the progression and graduate exams. The exam questions are produced by the teachers of the subjects.  They are common for all classes of the same grade. 

Teachers are responsible for selecting and properly defining the syllabus content that will be assessed.  When a subject is taught by more than one teacher, the teachers must work together in order to produce the assessment content.  This is submitted to and approved by the school head.  It is announced to the students 5 working days before the final lessons.

Questions for these tests are based on each subject’s assessment content during the exam year.

The syllabus content for the pan-hellenic exams (entry to higher education) is determined by decision of the Minister of Education.  It is published the latest at the end of September of the school year, after a proposal by the Institute of Educational Policy.

Annual student performance

For grades A and B of general lykeio, the annual student performance score in all subjects assessed through written exams is:

  • The average of the annual oral performance score
  • The respective written tests score (may be decimal to one place).

For grade C of general lykeio, the annual student performance score in all subjects assessed through written exams is:

  • The average of the annual performance score by 60 per cent
  • The respective written tests score by 40 per cent (may be decimal to one place).

The annual performance score for specialisation subjects is the general average of the scores for specialisation subjects.

For subjects not assessed through written exams, the annual performance score is the average of the first and second quarter.

The general average score (may be decimal to one place) is based on the average of the annual performance grades of all subjects assessed through written and non-written examinations, including the optional subjects and may be decimal to one place.  

Grading scale

The grading scale used for calculating student performance on all subjects ranges from 0 to 20 and comes with the following descriptions:

Grading scale Description
0 - 5 Fail
5.1 - 9.9 Poor
10 – 13 Fair
13,1 – 16 Good
16,1 – 18 Very good
18,1 – 20 Excellent

The written parts of the progression and school-leaving exams are marked on the scale of 0-100 (whole numbers only).

The final mark of the written part is reduced to the scale of 0-20 (may be decimal to one place).

Progression of pupils/students

Students may progress to the next grade or graduate when two (2) requirements are met at the same time:

  1. Minimum average score
  2. Sufficient attendance.

Minimum average score

For the progression of general lykeio students, the general average has to be a minimum of 10.  This average is calculated from the average annual performance score of all subjects assessed through written and non-written exams, excluding the subject of PE.

For general lykeio students (at any grade) who have failed to achieve the general average required (10), repeat exams are administered in the second half of June of the same year.  For group A subjects, exams are written and are conducted according to the procedure of progression exams.  For group B subjects, the exams are oral.

For general lykeio grade A and B: if students fail June’s repeat exams, they have to re-attend the same grade.

For general lykeio grade C: if they fail to attain the general average score during the special exam period of June, they can sit the special exam period of September, for the subjects they scored less than 9.5.  In case they fail, they may repeat the grade or they have the opportunity to sit the school-leaving exams of the following or any other year, without attending the respective grade.  These students are assessed in all written and non-written subject exams, except for PE.

Sufficient attendance

Another necessary prerequisite for the progression or the graduation of pupils in all grades of the general lykeio is their adequate attendance during the relevant school year.

Attendance is characterised as adequate or inadequate, based on the total number of absences.  Absences are enumerated one per teaching hour and must not exceed 114 per school year.

In the case of music, art and evening lykeio, it is plus 16 absences.  If a pupil exceeds the threshold, the pupil is required to repeat the grade, as attendance is deemed insufficient (ministerial decision 79942/ΓΔ4/21-5-2019).

Progression, graduation and reference to the special exam period of June/September or repeat of the grade depends on the current legislation.  Parents are not allowed to be involved in this decision process.


Pupils who successfully graduate from lykeio are awarded an upper secondary educational qualification.  It is called Lykeio Graduation Certificate.

The lykeio graduation certificate includes the photograph and the personal details of the student.  It also states:

  • The general academic performance
  • The specialisation group attended by the student
  • The detailed grades per course of the student during the school year.

Certifcates state the conduct of the student throughout the school year (ministerial decision 79942/ΓΔ4/21-5-2019).

It is issued by the school unit the pupil graduated from.  It has the signatures of the:

  • School head
  • Certificate editor
  • Members of the school teachers’ board. 

It is drafted after the issuance of the results for each year of graduation, on the basis of the relevant provisions that are valid for and applicable to all lykeia of the country.

Holders of the upper secondary school leaving certificate have the following options:

  1. To pursue their studies in tertiary education based on their results from:
  • Their performance at school level
  • The marks they get in the exams at national level (pan-hellenic exams).  The latter refer to the specialisation group subjects, are linked with entry to HEI of the country and correspond to specific scientific fields
  1. To enrol in Vocational Training Institutes (IEK) to get specialisation
  2. To take part in competitions in the public or private sector
  3. To join the labour market without specialisation.

Teacher’s evaluation 

The evaluation of teachers aims to improve their individual performance and the quality of public education and in general the pedagogical, didactic and support work offered by educational and support structures. This evaluation is carried out in accordance with the principles of impartiality, service, educational and support capacity and efficiency of executives, teachers and members of the special educational and auxiliary staff, taking into account the specificity of the offered educational, pedagogical and support work.

Details on Teacher’s evaluation,  they  can be found in the section 6.3 Assessment in general lower seondary  education.  

Fields and evaluation criteria of teachers' work

Teacher’s work is evaluated on a four-point descriptive scale, in which their work is graded from excellent, to very good, to satisfactory or to unsatisfactory, in terms of two (2) fields:

  1. the teaching and pedagogical work of the teacher, which is specialized in A1) general and special didactics of the cognitive subject and A2) pedagogical climate and classroom management and
  2.  service consistency and competence of the teacher.

Details on fields and evaluation criteria of teachers' work,  they  can be found in the section 6.3 Assessment in general lower secondary education.   

Utilization of evaluation results 

In the event that the work of a teacher is definitively evaluated as "unsatisfactory", the specific teacher attends a mandatory training program, which is prepared by the Institute of educational policy (I.E.P.). The subject of the training and its duration are determined by the decision of the Education quality supervisor, following a recommendation by the Education advisors,  Law 4823/2021.