The overall allocation of special educational measures is implemented at the individual school sites. Emphasis is placed on early and high quality support for children. The allocation also covers support for gifted pupils and for children with German as a second language.
Definition of the target group
Art. 15 of the School Law and the Ordinance on Remedial School Measures specify that children whose performance at school is weak or who exhibit behavioural problems should be supported by special educational measures so that they can remain in the classes to which they belong or can be integrated into a regular class. Remedial school measures can also be implemented to support children who have a different mother tongue. All children and young persons (from birth to age 20 - in certain circumstances up to age 22 ) living in Liechtenstein with special educational needs have a right on remedial school measures.
For most children and young persons with special educational needs the appropriate measures are implemented in the context of early curative education (family-based) or in normal schools during the period of compulsory schooling. If these measures prove to be inadequate, or no longer sufficient, the competent school authority may authorise enhanced measures - after completion of a standardised assessment process (SAV) aimed at determining the precise individual needs. This process includes a detailed overall analysis, brings together and if necessary supplements all the existing diagnoses and ensures the neutrality and objectivity of the providers responsible for the implementation of the measures.
The education system in Liechtenstein provides the following remedial measures (Remedial Measures in the Liechtenstein Education System: Concept, p. 6): Special education in standard school (SiR) as well as the following remedial measures:
In speech therapy, dysfunctions in oral and written language, in speaking, communication, fluency and the voice, in swallowing and dyslexia are diagnosed and the appropriate therapeutic measures are planned, implemented and evaluated. Not fostered is the learning of standard German within this context. In order to channel resources, the teaching of reading and writing should be carried out exclusively by teachers and remedial teachers. The aim is to offer speech therapy as close as possible to the schools and kindergartens in a municipality. At the same time, the provision of language support should be expanded .
Early curative education
In early curative education, children with mental and/or physical disabilities, or those who have delayed, impaired or endangered development are treated from birth to a maximum of two years after entry into formal schooling by means of evaluation, preventive and learning support, as well as appropriate support in the context of the family. Work with these children is based on the insights of curative education as well as on proven current theories and approaches to treatment and therapy.
Psychomotricity relates to the interaction of visual and sense perception, thinking, movement and behaviour and in the way this is expressed through the body. Abnormalities, disturbances and defects in psychomotor development and expression are diagnosed and therapeutic and remedial measures are planned, implemented and evaluated. Psychomotor therapies are in part provided directly by the schools and can also be carried out in group settings.
Measures for sensory impairment
Therapeutic measures in respect of auditory and visual impairments are acquired separately at specialist centres. Treatment is on an individual basis. Here, too, the aim is to integrate the required measures in the normal lessons as much as possible.
Special enrolment measures for regular schooling
Special enrolment is a particular educational measure which is offered in two forms: as induction classes and as pre-school classes. Special induction allows children with forms of developmental delay to be supported as much as possible on an individual basis using a targeted therapeutic diagnostic approach and thereby preparing the children for the demands of the first or second grade of primary school. Allocation is based on assessment by the school psychological service.
In the induction classes the targets and content of the first school year are tackled over a period of two years; the emphasis here is on a targeted preparation for the second grade of the regular schools. The induction classes are given by remedial teachers.
In the pre-school classes children are prepared after kindergarten for admission to the first grade of the primary school. The pre-school classes are taught by remedial teachers.