The aspects of higher education are determined in the Higher Education Law. There is one university under public law (University of Liechtenstein) and two private universities in Liechtenstein, the International Academy of Philosophy in the Principality of Liechtenstein (IAP) and the Private University in the Principality of Liechtenstein (UFL). These higher education institutions have acquired a status of self-government within the legal framework. For the foundation of a university a proposal has to be established that the government approves of in advance.
Teaching at higher education level as a rule requires a completed higher education degree, pedagogic suitability, special competences in academic work, and specific know-how in the application or generation of scientific findings and methods. In most instances a doctorate degree and a habilitation lead to an academic career as a professor (increasingly also post-doc qualifications).
The procedures for the venia legendi to be awarded are regulated by the individual higher education institution.