There is clerical and other administrative staff working in a number of services in the universities, such as:
• Academic affairs and student welfare services;
• Financial services;
• Human resource services;
• Information systems services;
• Research and international relations services;
• Technical services;
• Promotion and development services (alumni relations, communication, development, events).
The personnel are appointed by the universities, but their conditions of service are those of a civil servant. The directors of these services are required to have postgraduate qualifications. Similar services operate in all other institutions of higher education.