Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education
The methods and elements of the assessment of students' educational outcomes, competencies and expectations result from the national, subject and cross-curricular curricula, teaching plans and programmes, vocational school curriculum, school curriculum and the Ordinance on the Methods, Procedures and Elements of the Evaluation of the Primary and Secondary Schools (OG No. 112/2010 and 82/19) as well as on the Code of Conduct adopted by schools.
Assessment is the systematic collection of information in the learning process and on the level of achievement of educational outcomes, competences, knowledge, skills, abilities, independence and responsibility towards work, in accordance with pre-defined and accepted methods and elements. There are three assessment approaches: assessment for learning, assessment as learning, assessment of the learned. Assessment for learning serves to enhance and plan for future learning and teaching. Assessment as learning concerns the active involvement of students in the assessment process and the development of a student's autonomous and self-regulated approach to learning. The assessment of the learned is the assessment of the level of students’ achievement. Assessment for learning and assessment as learning do not result in a mark but qualitative feedback.
Monitoring is the systematic observation and recording of observations on the achieved level of achievement of educational outcomes in order to encourage learning and verification of the achieved level of achievement of educational outcomes and expectations defined by national, subject and cross-curricula curricula, teaching plans and programmes and vocational and school curricula. It includes all three assessment approaches: evaluation for learning, evaluation as learning, and evaluation of the learned.
Examination is an assessment of the level of achievement of educational outcomes, competences and expectations in a subject or area and other forms of school work during the school year.
Passing marks means giving a numerical or descriptive value to the results of monitoring and examining student's work.
The assessment of student's achievement in his/her work, practical work, experiment, laboratory or other exercise and performance (art: music, dance or visual arts school) is carried out based on different methods in accordance with the subject curricula.
The activities in the process of assessment of the development of student's competences and conduct are carried out by teachers, class masters and expert associates in a transparent, public and continuous manner taking account of student's personality and providing all students with an equal opportunity. When assessing students with disabilities, special provisions apply.
The Ordinance defines an initial examination, an oral examination as well as a written examination.
At the beginning of the school year, teachers can carry out the initial examination with the aim to assess students' competences in each class department and subject. The initial examination must be announced beforehand and it has to be carried out by the end of the second week from the beginning of the school year.
The oral examination includes all oral forms of testing the level of achieved competences that result in a mark. Oral forms of examination are carried out continuously during the school year. Oral student examination and assessment can be carried out in each period without obligation of the previous announcement and it should not last longer than 10 minutes per student. On the day when a student has a written exam, the student can have one oral exam, or two oral exams if there are no written exams on that day.
Written examination implies all written forms of testing, which result in a mark awarded to students' written work. It is carried out continuously throughout the school year. A teacher must inform the students on the range of educational content that will be examined and on the implementation method of written examination. In a single day, a student can have only one written examination and in one week there should not be more than four written examinations. The teacher is obliged to announce a written examination at least one month before the examination and to enter the examination date in the Class Book. Exceptionally, written examinations conducted for the purpose of assessment for learning or assessment as learning need not be announced.
Based on the monitoring and assessment during the school year, each subject teacher gives a final mark in his/her subject and the class council grades the conduct following the proposal from the class master. Student's achievement and the final mark in each subject, as well as the mark in conduct, are announced publically in the class department or the educational group at the end of the school year.
Final mark in each subject should reflect the achieved level of students' competences in a particular subject/educational area and it should express the result of the overall process of assessment during the school year and it is deduced based on the assessment elements.
Marks in the subjects are numerical and the ones given for conduct are descriptive. Numerical marks that students can get in particular subjects are as follows: excellent (5), very good (4), good (3), sufficient (2) and insufficient (1), and all marks but insufficient (1) are passing marks.
Overall achievement of a student who has positive marks in all subjects is determined by the arithmetic mean of all the subject marks, using the following marks: excellent – if the mean mark is at least 4.50; very good – if the mean mark is between 3.50 and 4.49; good – if the mean mark is between 2.50 and 3.49; sufficient – if the mean mark is between 2 and 2.49. The general achievement of students of all secondary school grades is determined by the class council at the proposal of the class teacher. If the students’ final mark in at least three subjects is insufficient (1), and if they did not pass the remedial exam at prescribed times, their overall achievement is graded as insufficient (1). A student with insufficient (1) achievement must repeat the grade.
At the beginning and during the course of the school year, teachers of each subject must provide information to students regarding elements of assessment, educational outcomes, competences, the level of good achievement from the subject curriculum, the planned methods of assessment and the planned frequency of assessment. The teacher is obliged to harmonise the assessment of the achievement of students with disabilities with the recommendations of expert associates.
A student is assessed in a particular subject by a teacher who teaches the subject.
The teacher assesses the student publicly in the class department or educational group except in exceptional circumstances (instruction in a hospital, at home).
At the end of each class of the grammar school programme, the student is issued a class certificate. At the end of the grammar school education, the student is issued a Certificate of Completion. At the end of the first semester, the student is notified of the results achieved.
A student is entitled to be acquainted with the elements of assessment as well as assessment methods and procedures by each individual teacher of every subject. A parent is entitled to be acquainted with the elements of assessment as well as assessment methods and procedures of every subject. The parent(s) shall be entitled to written and oral submissions (objections, comments and suggestions) regarding the student’s assessment submitted to the headmaster and/or the parent’ council.
Progression of pupils/students
The progression of students in grammar school education is prescribed by the provisions of the Primary and Secondary School Education Act (OG 87/08, 86/09, 92/10, 105/10, 90/11, 5/12, 16/12, 86/12, 94/13, 136/14 - RUSRH, 152/14, 7/17, 68/18 and 98/19).
Students who get passing marks in every subject progress to higher grade.
Numerical marks that students can get in particular subjects are as follows: excellent (5), very good (4), good (3), sufficient (2) and insufficient (1), and all marks but insufficient (1) are passing marks.
Overall achievement is determined as: excellent, very good, good, sufficient and insufficient. If the students’ final mark in at least three subjects is insufficient (1), and if they did not pass the remedial exam at prescribed times, their overall achievement is graded as insufficient (1). A student with insufficient (1) achievement must repeat the grade.
The school is obliged to organise support in learning and compensation of knowledge for the students who achieved mark insufficient (1) in two subjects at the end of the school year. This is done through supplemental classes, which the student must attend. The duration of supplemental classes is determined by the teachers’ council for each subject separately and may not be shorter than 10 and longer than 25 hours per subject. In case a student achieves expected positive results during these classes, a final passing mark is given by the responsible teacher. During the final supplemental class, the teacher must notify the student of the final mark or of his/her necessity to take the remedial exam.
If a student does not make the final passing mark at the end of supplemental classes, he/she is sent to take the remedial exam, which takes place at the end of the school year, or by 25th August at the latest. The remedial exam is taken before the examination committee appointed by the headmaster, and the mark is final. The procedure of taking the remedial exams is defined by the school statute. The dates for the remedial exams are set by the teachers' council and published on the school's website and bulletin board.
The student or the parent who is dissatisfied with the final mark in a particular subject is entitled, within two days from the end of the teaching year, to submit a request to the class or teachers' council to take the examination before the committee. The taking of the examination before the committee takes place within two days from the day of the submission request. The committee is composed of three members who are appointed by the teachers' council. If the committee has given the passing mark their mark is final. In case that the committee has given the student the mark insufficient (1), and the student has the final mark insufficient (1) in a maximum of two teaching subjects, he/she must take supplemental classes. The procedure of taking the exam before the committee is defined by the school statute.
The student or the parent who is dissatisfied with the mark in conduct is entitled, within two days from the end of the school year, to submit a request to the teachers' council for the review of the mark. The mark in conduct given by the teachers' council is final.
A secondary school student can enrol into the same grade no more than twice. A student may use this right up to two times during secondary education, except for a student attending a programme for acquiring lower qualification who can use this right only once. In exceptional, justified cases, the student can enrol into each grade more then twice, with the approval of the minister.
Students having the status of a categorized athlete, especially talented students in the area of art and students preparing for the international competitions can finish school by attending classes or by taking an examination in half as long time as it is defined.
State graduation exam
Secondary education of the students in grammar schools ends by taking the state graduation exam. The purpose of the state graduation exam is to assess and evaluate the achieved knowledge and competences, acquired by education in accordance with general education teaching plans and programmes.
There are compulsory and elective subjects at the state graduation exam and they are equal for all students and are taken at the same time. The state graduation exams are organised and carried out by the National Centre for External Evaluation of Education.
The compulsory state graduation exams are: Croatian language, Mathematics and a foreign language. There are some particularities concerning the students of classical grammar school and the ones taught in the language and script of the ethnic minority. Students of classical grammar schools can, according to their personal choice, take an exam in Latin or Greek language as a compulsory state graduation exam, instead of a foreign language. The students taught in the language and script of the ethnic minority can take an exam in the minority language as a compulsory together with Croatian and they can opt between mathematics and a foreign language as a third compulsory subject. However, these students also have to pass all state graduation exams required by the higher education institution they want to enrol in. In exceptional cases, the students educated in the language and script of the Czech minority can choose whether they want to take the state graduation exams as minority members or as other students.
The student can take a compulsory state graduation exam only in a foreign language whose educational content is prescribed by the examination catalogue and in which the student was assessed with the positive mark for the period of two school years throughout the secondary education. Within the elective exams, a student can take any foreign language whose educational content is prescribed in the examination catalogue.
The compulsory state graduation exams can be taken at two levels: the higher level (A) and the basic level (B). After gaining insight into particular study programme requirements, the student will decide which level of the exam to take. The higher level (A) of the compulsory exam enables the student to have access to those study programmes which require the basic level (B). Students who take the basic level (B) of the exam cannot apply for those study programmes which require a higher level (A). The list of elective exams is issued by the National Centre for External Evaluation of Education for each school year on its web site. The maximum of six exams can be chosen for one examination period.
The contents of the exams, by levels, are prescribed by the exam catalogues which can be found on the National Centre for External Evaluation of Education website.
The procedure of taking the state graduation exams is prescribed by the Ordinance on the State Graduation Exams (OG 01/13 and 41/19).
Grammar school students who have successfully passed the state graduation exam get a Certificate of Completion. Marks for attained achievement in subjects are: excellent (5), very good (4), good (3), sufficient (2).
The Certificate of Completion is issued by the National Center for External Evaluation of Education and is co-signed by the headmaster of the school and the Director of the National Center. The certificate is issued, depending on the period of taking the state graduation exam in the summer and autumn examination period.
Monitoring and assessment in art schools
For more general information, see section 6.3 on grammar school education
Teachers are required to monitor, assess and evaluate students' work in accordance with the art curriculum.
If due to a longer justified absence, illness, relocation or other justified reasons prescribed by the school statute, it is not possible to assess the student's knowledge at the end of the school year or if his/her knowledge does not meet the level of expected achievement defined in the art curriculum, the student's education may be extended by one school year. This procedure is governed by the school statute. The decision to extend the education is made by the headmaster at the proposal of the teachers' council of the school.
Progression of pupils/students
The progression of students in art education is regulated by the provisions of the Primary and Secondary School Education Act.
Students may complete art education in a shorter period of time than required, depending on the level of advancement in the acquisition of knowledge, development of skills, abilities and attitudes in the manner prescribed by the art curriculum. During one school year, a student can complete two classes.
At the end of each class of the secondary school, the student is issued a class certificate and at the end of secondary school education, the student is issued a certificate on the final paper.
State graduation exam
For more general information, see section 6.3 on grammar school education.
Students in art schools, who have successfully passed state graduation exams, get the certificate on passed exams. Marks for attained achievement in subjects are: excellent (5), very good (4), good (3), sufficient (2).