European, global and intercultural dimension in curriculum development
One of the general principles of the Vocational Training System according to Organic Law 3/2022, is convergence with the vocational training systems of the European Union and third countries, favouring internationalisation and transnational mobility.
Some of the objectives of vocational training include:
- the generation of inter-autonomic and transnational circuits of knowledge transfer between centres, companies or similar organisations, entities, teachers and trainees, promoting mobility projects;
- the extension of foreign language skills in the professional sphere;
For the purpose of internationalisation of Vocational Training, the General State Administration promotes:
- the signing of partnership agreements and the implementation of projects;
- participation in international exchange programmes;
- programmes based on dual vocational training degrees with mixed curricula from the two countries involved;
- dissemination activities to attract students to the Spanish vocational training system;
- cooperation with other countries in the design and implementation of their vocational training systems.
In addition, vocational training institutions can carry out training projects with companies abroad.
Within the curriculum of the different branches of vocational training, the Higher Vocational Training qualification has the most related content to the European and international dimension in their modules. In this category, the specialisations of International Commerce and Marketing and Advertising stand out in their modules oriented towards financing and international trade.
In the International Commerce specialization, students learn how to:In the Marketing and Advertisement specialization, students learn how to:
- draw international market studies;
- choose adequate trading communication actions to approach a foreign market;
- elaborate a digital international marketing plan;
- getting a deep understanding of the bodies and institutions related to the international trade;
- understand the international contracting regulations that regulate sales and purchase;
- analyse distribution channels in export markets;
- organise the international activity of companies.
In the Marketing and Advertisement specialization, students learn how to:
- understand the international institutions that regulate or influence the trading activity;
- value sociocultural and formal protocols in international relationships.
In addition, these modules allow learners to learn about:
- international economic structure;
- Spanish international trade;
- features of the EU and other countries;
- international and regional bodies;
- multinational firms;
- international funding;
- foreign exchange markets;
- trade system and international markets;
- international credit management.
Spanish universities enjoy autonomy to design and propose their own curricula. However, Organic Law 6/2001 on Universities (LOU), as amended by Organic Law 4/2007 (LOMLOU), states that the Government, the Autonomous Communities and universities, within the scope of their respective competences, are responsible for contributing to the European dimension of education, implementing the necessary measures to achieve the integration of the Spanish university system into the European Higher Education Area.
Partnerships and networks
Acciones Jean Monnet are framed within the actions of the Erasmus+ Programme for higher education students and staff.
The aim of these actions is to support teaching, learning, research and discussion on various aspects of the European Union.
Jean Monnet teaching and research activities in higher education institutions take the form of the following Actions:
- Jean Monnet Modules: They are short teaching programmes or courses in the field of EU studies. Each Module has a minimum duration of 40 teaching hours and may concentrate on one particular discipline in European studies or be multidisciplinary in approach. Modules can be developed in a higher education institution in any country in the world, and in case the institution is located in an Erasmus+ Programme Country, it must hold an Erasmus Charter for Higher Education.
- Jean Monnet Chairs: They are teaching posts with a specialisation in EU studies for university professors or senior lecturers. Teachers must provide a minimum of 90 teaching hours per academic year and a Chair can deepen teaching in EU studies, promote research on EU subjects, or provide in-depth teaching on EU matters for future professionals. Applications must be submitted by higher education institutions; professors/lecturers cannot apply directly.
- Jean Monnet Centres of Excellence: They constitute focal points of competence and knowledge on EU subjects. They aim at developing synergies between the various disciplines and resources in European studies, as well as at creating joint transnational activities and structural links with academic institutions in other countries. They have a major role in reaching out to students from faculties not normally dealing with EU issues, as well as to policy makers, civil servants, organised civil society and the general public at large.
- Jean Monnet Networks: They foster the creation and development of consortia of international players (higher education institutions, centres of excellence, departments, teams, individual experts, etc.) in the area of EU studies. They realise a broad range of activities, such as, for example, gathering and promoting information, enhancing cooperation between higher education institutions and other relevant bodies, or exchanging knowledge, expertise and good practices. These projects have a duration of three years.
Among the support to organizations, Erasmus+ offers Cooperation Partnerships which entail transnational projects to develop and transfer innovative practices as well as promoting cooperation, peer learning and exchanges of experience in the fields of education, training and youth.
Two types of partnerships are offered:
- cooperative partnerships;
- small-scale partnerships.
In higher education, priority is given to actions that are fundamental to achieving the objectives of the European Education Area:
- promoting interconnected higher education systems;
- fostering innovative learning and teaching practices;
- developing STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) / STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics) disciplines in higher education, in particular by increasing the participation of women in these disciplines;
- Two types of partnerships are offered;
- creating inclusive higher education systems;
- supporting digital and green skills in the higher education sector.
Applications must be submitted by an organization established in a country the programme, and must include at least three organizations.
Alliances for Innovation
Similar to Cooperation Partnerships, Alliances for Innovation aim to strengthen Europe’s capacity for innovation capacity by reinforcing cooperation and the flow of knowledge in higher education, vocational education and training.
Some of the promoted activities are:
- Alliances for Education and Enterprises which aim at enhancing innovation in higher education, vocational education and training and enterprises. Projects must include at least 4 participant countries, 3 enterprises, and 3 education and training providers (vocational and higher).
- Alliances for Sectoral Cooperation on Skills which aim at designing strategic approaches for sectoral cooperation, as well as designing core curricula and training programmes at sectoral level. Projects must include at least 8 countries, 5 labour market entities (enterprises, companies, etc.), and 5 education and training providers (vocational and higher).